Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology

, Volume 25, Issue 6, pp 513–520 | Cite as

Culture conditions for growth and solvent biosynthesis by a modified Clostridium acetobutylicum

  • L. Yerushalmi
  • B. Volesky


A modified strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum and the fermentation medium conditions for good growth of the culture and normal production of solvents are described. The pretreatment of the culture with butyric-acid-enriched medium increased the final solvent yield on sugar and lowered the residual butyric acid accumulation. In a complex medium, relatively high concentrations of yeast extract (7.5 g/l) and ammonium sulphate (3 g/l to 6 g/l) were required for normal solvent synthesis. The nitrogen requirements for cellular growth and solvent production were distinctively different. Production of solvents and growth of the culture were dependent on the concentration of para-aminobenzoic acid and relatively independent of the variations of the initial pH of the medium in the range of 4.6 to 6.3. Solvent production was obtained with initial glucose concentrations of 20.5 g/l to 70 g/l, resulting in a maximum solvent concentration of 22 g/l and a maximum yield on glucose of 32.7%.


Fermentation Clostridium Butyric Acid Fermentation Medium Cellular Growth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abou-zeid AA, Fouad M, Yassein M (1978) Microbial production of acetone-butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Zentralbl Bakteriol Abt II 133:125Google Scholar
  2. Andresch W, Bahl H, Gottschalk G (1982) Acetone-butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Biotechnol Lett 4:29Google Scholar
  3. Bahl H, Andresch W, Braun K, Gottschalk G (1982) Effect of pH and butyrate concentration on the production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum grown in continuous culture. Eur J Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 14:17Google Scholar
  4. Beesch SC (1952) Acetone-butanol fermentation of sugars. Ind Eng Chem 44:1677Google Scholar
  5. Beesch SC (1953) Acetone-butanol fermentation of starches. Appl Microbiol 1:85Google Scholar
  6. Davies R, Stephenson M (1941) Studies on the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation 1. Nutritional and other factors involved in the preparation of active suspensions of Clostridium acetobutylicum (Weizmann). Biochem J 35:1320Google Scholar
  7. Doelle HW (1975) Bacterial metabolism, 2nd edn. Academic Press, New York, pp 574–605Google Scholar
  8. Gottschal JC, Morris JG (1981) Non-production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum during glucose-and ammonium-limitation in continouous culture. Biotechnol Lett 3:525Google Scholar
  9. Gottschalk G, Bahl H (1981) Feasible improvements of the butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum. In: Hollaender A (ed) Trends in biology of fermentations for fuels and chemicals. Basic life sciences vol 18. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Leung JCY, Wang DIC (1981) Production of acetone and butanol by Clostridium acetobutylicum in continuous culture using free cells and immobilized cells. Proc 2nd World Congr Chem Eng 1:348Google Scholar
  11. Linden JC, Moreira A (1982) Anaerobic production of chemicals. In: Hollaender A, Laskin AI, Rogers P (eds) Biological basis for new developments in biotechnology. Plenum Press, New York, pp 377Google Scholar
  12. Mahmoud SAZ, Taha SM, Ishac YZ, El-Sawy M, El-Demerdash ME (1974) Acetone-butanol fermentation in Egypt 3. Molasses as raw material. Egypt J Microbiol 9:32Google Scholar
  13. Monot F, Engasser JM (1983) Production of acetone and butanol by batch and continuous culture of Clostridium acetobutylicum under nitrogen limitation. In: Bu'Lock JD, Bu'Lock AJ (eds) The acetone-butanol fermentation and related topics. Science Technol Lett, pp 117–119Google Scholar
  14. Monot F, Martin JR, Petitdemange H, Gay R (1982) Acetone and butanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum in a synthetic medium. Appl Environ Microbiol 44:1318Google Scholar
  15. Moreira AR, Ulmer DC, Linden JC (1981) Butanol toxicity in the butylic fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng Symp 11:567Google Scholar
  16. Nakhmanovich BM, Yarovenko VL (1970) Kinetics of the fermentation of various sugars by Clostridium acetobutylicum bacteria. Vses Nauch-Issled Inst Prod Brozheniya 19:281Google Scholar
  17. Peterson WH, Fred EB (1932) Butyl-acetone fermentation of corn meal: interrelations of substrate and products. Ind Eng Chem 24:237Google Scholar
  18. Qadeer MA, Choudhry FM, Ahmad S, Rashid S, Akhtar MA (1980) Acetone-butanol fermentation of cane molasses by Clostridium acetobutylicum. Pak J Sci Res 32:157Google Scholar
  19. Reyes-Teodoro R, Mickelson MN (1945) Growth factor requirements of saccharolytic butyl alcohol-acetone bacteria. Arch Biochem 6:471Google Scholar
  20. Robinson GC (1922) A study of the acetone and butyl-alcohol fermentation of various carbohydrates. J Biol Chem 53:125Google Scholar
  21. Speakman HB (1923) Molecular configuration in the sugars and acid production by Bacillus granulobacter Pectinovorum. J Biol Chem 58:395Google Scholar
  22. Spivey MJ (1978) The acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. Proc Biochem 13:2Google Scholar
  23. Taha SM, Mahmoud SAZ, Ishac YZ, El-Sawy M, El-Demerdash ME (1973) Acetone-butanol fermentation in Egypt 2. Use of various raw materials. Egypt J Microbiol 8:15Google Scholar
  24. Ulmer DC, Linden JC, Moreira AR (1981) The effect of ethanol and butanol on sugar transport and viability of Clostridium species bacteria. Annu Rep Dept Chem Eng Colorado State Univ pp 1–77Google Scholar
  25. Weizmann C, Rosenfeld B (1937) The activation of the butanol-acetone fermentation of carbohydrates by Clostridium acetobutylicum (Weizmann). Biochem J 31:619Google Scholar
  26. Wynne AM (1931) Inhibition of the acetone-butyl alcohol fermentation. J Bacteriol 22:209Google Scholar
  27. Yerushalmi L, Volesky B (1985) Importance of agitation in the acetone-butanol fermentation. Biotechnol Bioeng 27:1297Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Yerushalmi
    • 1
  • B. Volesky
    • 1
  1. 1.Biochemical Engineering Research Unit, Department of Chemical EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations