Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 39, Issue 1–2, pp 47–57 | Cite as

Quality of used-snow discharged in the ST-Lawrence river, in the region of the Montreal Harbor

  • I. Zinger
  • C. E. Delisle
Article

Abstract

Snow disposal creates problems each year in Montreal. Snow dumping in water courses is favored due to both esthetic and economic considerations. Used snow must be considered as a potential pollutant. Its impact on the aquatic receiving environment is not well known. With river dumping in progress, snow samples were collected at 3 sites: Concorde Bridge, and at piers 30 and 52 in Montreal Harbor. Analysis of 28 routine parameters demonstrated that the quality of snow ultimately dumped in the river varies considerably according to its sources and the time it remains in the streets. Used-snow from residential areas was shown to be less polluted than the snow from commercial areas. Furthermore, from the total number of sampled districts, used-snow dumped at pier 30 appears to be relatively more polluted as it originated from downtown areas where vehicle circulation is more dense. Heavy metals in particles sizes between 0.45 and 63 μm represented more than 70% of the measured suspended solids which reflects the risk of bioaccumulation via benthic organisms. Principal component analysis of present data suggests that with analysis of chlorides, suspended solids and Pb alone, it is possible to approximately determine the quality of used-snow.

Keywords

Particle Size Chloride Heavy Metal Principal Component Analysis Pier 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams, F. S.: 1973, Farm Economics, Pennsylvania State University.Google Scholar
  2. Anonymous: 1971, Environment Impact of Highway De-icing, Env. Prot. Agency Water Quality Research.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous: 1974, A Review of Literature on the Environmental Impact of the De-icing Compounds and Snow Disposal, Ontario Ministry of Environment, 66 p.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous: 1981, BMDP Statistical Software, Univ. of California Press, U.S.A., 926 p.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous: 1982a, SAS User's Guide: Basics, SAS Institute Inc., U.S.A., 921 p.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous: 1982b, Tail and Landscape Ottawa Field Naturalist Club 16, 252.Google Scholar
  7. Anonymous: 1983, Rapports d'analyses, Montreal City Control and Research Laboratory.Google Scholar
  8. APHA (American Public Health Association): 1980, Standard Methods, for the Examination of Water and Waste-Water, 1134 p.Google Scholar
  9. Delisle, C. E., Zinger, L, Harvey, C., Delmas, D., and Morin, P.: 1985, Répercussions écologiques des déversements des neiges usées dans le fleuve St-Laurent du niveau du Port de Montreal, City of Montreal Confidential Report, 225 p.Google Scholar
  10. Freick, G., Horne, R. A., and Yeale, D.: 1972, Science 175, 1142.Google Scholar
  11. Goodnight, C. J.: 1973, Trans. Amer. Microscopy Soc. 92, 1.Google Scholar
  12. Johnston, T.: 1984, Environmental Concerns from Snow Dumping in Metropolitan Toronto, Montreal, A.P.W.A. Snow Disposal Workshop.Google Scholar
  13. Jonasson, I. R.: 1973, Nature 241, 447.Google Scholar
  14. Lachambre, G.: 1981, The Need for a Comprehensive Plan and How to Gain Support for It, Baltimore A.P.W.A. Snow Conference, 24 p.Google Scholar
  15. Landsberger, S.: 1984, Sulphur and Heavy Metal Pollution of Urban Snow and Environmental Impact, Montreal A.P.W.A. Snow Disposal Workshop, 8 p.Google Scholar
  16. Landsberger, S. and Servis, R. E.: 1983, Int. J. of Env. Anal. Chem. 16, 95.Google Scholar
  17. Lewis, J. E., Moore, T. R., and Enright, N. J.: 1983, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 20, 7.Google Scholar
  18. Malmqvist, P. A.: 1984, Environmental Effects on Snow Disposal in Sweden, Montreal A.P.W.A. Snow Disposal Workshop.Google Scholar
  19. Milne, J. B. and Dickman, M.: 1977, J. Env. Sc. Health 12, 173.Google Scholar
  20. Niblett, P.: 1984, Understanding Pollution from Snow Melt, Environmental Profiling, Montreal A.P.W.A. Snow Disposal Workshop.Google Scholar
  21. O'Brien, P.: 1974, Chemical Impact of Snow Dumping Practices, Env. Prot. Agency Res. Center, 27 p.Google Scholar
  22. Olivier, B. G., Mine, J. B., and Labarre, N.: 1974, J. WPCF 46, 766.Google Scholar
  23. OME (Ontario Ministry of Environment): 1975, Guidelines for Snow Disposal and De-icing Operations in Ontario, 8 p.Google Scholar
  24. Percherkin, N. A. and Burmatova, E. A.: 1965, Chemical Composition of Snow on the Water Surface of the Kama and Votkinst Reservoirs, U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory.Google Scholar
  25. QME (Quebec Ministry of Environment): 1983, Lignes directrices pour l'elimination des neiges usées, 22 p.Google Scholar
  26. Richards, J. L. et Ass. Lmt., Labrèche and Vezina et Ass.: 1973, Étude sur l'émination de la neige pour le territoire de la capitale nationale, 163 p.Google Scholar
  27. Riverin, J. M.: 1982, Límination de la neige et la protection de l'environnement, Chicoutimi Env. Comity, 10 p.Google Scholar
  28. Scott, W.: 1980, Water, Air, and Soil Pollut. 13, 187.Google Scholar
  29. Viateur, A.: 1978, La disposition des neiges usées en milieu urbain et la qua/W de l'environnement, Quebec Env. Prot. Services, 17 p.Google Scholar
  30. Zinger, 1.: 1985, ‘Qualité des neiges usées et impacts de leurs déversements dans la égion du Port du Montreal’, MSc. Dissertation, École Polytechnique of Montreal, 103 p.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Zinger
    • 1
  • C. E. Delisle
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringEnvironment Section, École PolytechniqueMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations