Child's Nervous System

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 79–84 | Cite as

Silicone oil-induced hydrocephalus in the rabbit

  • Mare R. Del Bigio
  • J. Edward Bruni
Original Papers


Hydrocephalus was induced in adult rabbits by injecting silicone oil into the cisterna magna. Mean intracranial pressure was significantly elevated for approximately 36 h post-injection, during which time maximal ventricular dilatation was attained. Stretching and compression of periventricular tissue and capillaries accompanied dilation of the lateral ventricles. Ventricular dilation promoted mitotic activity among the periventricular astroglia. Ventriculomegaly altered the metabolism of the monoamine neurotransmitters in the cortex, hippocampus, diencephalon, hypothalamus, and brainstem. Ischemic injury to neurons of the hippocampal formation, particularly the dentate gyrus, was observed when hydrocephalus had persisted for more than 4 weeks. Cerebrospinal fluid shunting effectively reversed the neuropathologic changes only when done in the early stages of hydrocephalus. When hydrocephalus persisted for 8 weeks, rapid reversal of changes in the ependyma and periventricular capillaries was prevented largely by periventricular gliosis.

Key words

Cerebral ventricle Cerebral ischemia Cerebrospinal fluid shunting Hydrocephalus Rabbit 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Ball MJ (1976) Neurofibrillary tangles in the dementia of “normal pressure” hydrocephalus. Can J Neurol Sci 3:227–235Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ball MJ, Vis CL (1978) Relationship of granulovacuolar degeneration in hippocampal neurones to aging and to dementia in normal pressure hydrocephalus. J Gerontol 33:815–824Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borgensen SE (1984) Conductance to outflow of CSF in normal pressure hydrocephalus. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 71:1–45Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bruni JE, Del Bigio MR, Clattenberg RE (1985) Ependyma: normal and pathological. A review of the literature. Brain Res Rev 9:1–19Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark RG, Milhorat TH (1970) Experimental hydrocephalus. III. Light microscopic findings in acute and subacute obstructive hydrocephalus in the monkey. J Neurosurg 32:400–413Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dandy WE, Blackfan KD (1913) An experimental and clinical study of internal hydrocephalus. JAMA 61:2216–2217Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    De SN (1950) A study of the changes in the brain in experimental internal hydrocephalus. J Pathol Bacteriol 62:197–208Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Del Bigio MR (1989) Hydrocephalus-induced changes in the composition of cerebrospinal fluid. Neurosurgery 25:416–423Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Del Bigio MR, Bruni JE (1987) Chronic intracranial pressure monitoring in conscious hydrocephalic rabbits. Pediatr Neurosci 13:67–71Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Del Bigio MR, Bruni JE (1987) Cerebral water content in silicone oil-induced hydrocephalic rabbits. Pediatr Neurosci 13:72–77Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Del Bigio MR, Bruni JE (1988) Changes in periventricular vasculature of rabbit brain following induction of hydrocephalus and after shunting. J Neurosurg 69:115–120Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Del Bigio MR, Bruni JE (1988) Periventricular pathology in hydrocephalic rabbits before and after shunting. Acta Neuropathol 77:186–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Drake JM, Potts DG, Lemaire C (1989) Magnetic resonance imaging of silastic-induced canine hydrocephalus. Surg Neurol 31:28–40Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Edvinsson L, West KA (1971) Relation between intracranial pressure and ventricular size at various stages of experimental hydrocephalus. Acta Neurol Scand 47:451–457Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Epstein F, Rubin RC, Hochwald GM (1974) Restoration of the cortical mantle in severe feline hydrocephalus: a new laboratory model. Dev Med Child Neurol [Suppl 32]:49–53Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Foltz EL, Shurtleff DB (1963) Five-year comparative study of hydrocephalus in children with and without operation. J Neurosurg 20:1064–1079Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gopinath G, Bhatia R, Gopinath PG (1979) Ultrastructural observations in experimental hydrocephalus in rabbits. J Neurol Sci 43:333–344Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Graff-Radford NR, Rezai K, Godersky JC, Eslinger P, Damasio H, Kirchner PT (1987) Regional cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50:1589–1596Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Granholm L (1966) Induced reversibility of ventricular dilatation in experimental hydrocephalus. Acta Neurol Scand 42:581–588Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hakim S, Venegas JG, Burton JD (1976) The physics of the cranial cavity, hydrocephalus and normal pressure hydrocephalus: mechanical interpretation and mathematical model. Surg Neurol 5:287–210Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hemmer R, Bohm B (1976) Once a shunt, always a shunt? Dev Med Child Neurol [Suppl 37]:69–73Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Higashi K, Asahisa H, Ueda N, Kobayashi K, Hara K, Noda Y (1986) Cerebral blood flow and metabolism in experimental hydrocephalus. Neurol Res 8:169–176Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Iwasaki Y, Shitara N, Nakamura H, Fujiwara M, Saito I, Takakura K (1987) Spatial memory disruption in hydrocephalic rats assessed in the radial arm maze (abstract). 8th European Congress of Neurosurgery, Barcelona, Spain 1987Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kuchiwaki H, Hasuo M, Furuse M (1979) Effect of increases in intracranial pressure in acute experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Brain Nerve 31:577–582Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lux WE Jr, Hochwald GM, Sahar A, Ransohoff J (1970) Periventricular water content. Effect of pressure in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Arch Neurol 23:475–479Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    McAllister JP II, Maugans TA, Shah MV, Truex RC Jr (1985) Neuronal effects of experimentally induced hydrocephalus in newborn rats. J Neurosurg 63:776–783Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Miyaoka M, Ito M, Wada M, Sato K, Ishii S (1988) Measurement of local cerebral glucose utilization before and after V-P shunt in congenital hydrocephalus in rats. Metab Brain Dis 3:125–132Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Penfield W, Elvidge AR (1932) Hydrocephalus and the atrophy of cerebral compression. In: Penfield W (ed) Cytology and cellular pathology of the nervous system. Hoeber, New York, pp 1203–1217Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Penn RD, Bacus W (1984) The brain as a sponge: a computed tomographic look at Hakim's hypothesis. Neurosurgery 14:670–675Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pluta R (1987) Resuscitation of the rabbit brain after acute complete ischemia lasting up to one hour: pathophysiological and pathomorphological observations. Resuscitation 15:267–287Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Raimondi AJ, Soare P (1974) Intellectual development in shunted hydrocephalic children. Am J Dis Child 127:664–671Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Richards HK, Bucknall RM, Jones HC, Pickard JD, (1989) The uptake of [14C] deoxyglucose into brain of young rats with inherited hydrocephalus. Exp Neurol 103:194–198Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rubin RC, Hochwald GM, Tiell M, Epstein F, Ghatak N, Wisniewski H (1976) Hydrocephalus. III. Reconstitution of the cerebral cortical mantle following ventricular shunting. Surg Neurol 5:179–183Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schmidt-Kastnew R, Grosse Ophoft B, Hossmann KA (1990) Pattern of neuronal vulnerability in the cat hippocampus after one hour of global cerebral ischemia. Acta Neuropathol 79:444–455Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Takei F, Shapiro K, Hirano A, Kohn I (1987) Influence of the rate of ventricular enlargement on the ultrastructural morphology of the white matter in experimental hydrocephalus. Neurosurgery 21:645–650Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weller RO, Wisniewski H (1969) Histological and ultrastructural changes in experimental hydrocephalus in adult rabbits. Brain 92:819–828Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Whitelaw A, Ventriculomegaly Trial Group (1990) Randomized trial of early tapping in neonatal posthaemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Arch Dis Child 65:3–10Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wisniewski H, Weller RO, Terry RD (1969) Experimental hydrocephalus produced by the subarachnoid infusion of silicone oil. J Neurosurg 31:10–14Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mare R. Del Bigio
    • 1
  • J. Edward Bruni
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PathologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Department of AnatomyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

Personalised recommendations