Archives of Microbiology

, Volume 157, Issue 3, pp 297–300 | Cite as

Prochlorococcus marinus nov. gen. nov. sp.: an oxyphototrophic marine prokaryote containing divinyl chlorophyll a and b

  • Sallie W. Chisholm
  • Sheila L. Frankel
  • Ralf Goericke
  • Robert J. Olson
  • Brian Palenik
  • John B. Waterbury
  • Lisa West-Johnsrud
  • Erik R. Zettler
Short Communications

Abstract

Several years ago, prochlorophyte picoplankton were discovered in the N. Atlantic. They have since been found to be abundant within the euphotic zone of the world's tropical and temperate oceans. The cells are extremely small, lack phycobiliproteins, and contain divinyl chlorophyll a and b as their primary photosynthetic pigments. Phylogenies constructed from DNA sequence data indicate that these cells are more closely related to a cluster of marine cyanobacteria than to their prochlorophyte ‘relatives’ Prochlorothrix and Prochloron. Several strains of this organism have recently been brought into culture, and herewith are given the name Prochlorococcus marinus.

Key words

Prokaryote Prochlorophyte Prochlorococcus marinus Cyanobacteria Picoplankton Molecular phylogeny Divinyl chlorophyll 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brand LE, Sunda WG, Guillard RRL (1983) Limitation of marine phytoplankton reproduction rates by zinc, manganese, and iron. Limnol Oceanogr 28: 1182–1198Google Scholar
  2. Chavez FP, Buck K, Coale K, Martin JH, DiTullio GR, Welschmeyer NA, Jacobson AC, Barber RT (1991) Growth rates, grazing, sinking and iron limitation of equatorial Pacific phytoplankton. Limnol Oceanogr (in press)Google Scholar
  3. Chisholm SW, Olson RJ, Zettler ER, Goericke R, Waterbury JB, Welschmeyer NA (1988) A novel free-living prochlorophyte abundant in the occanic euphotic zone. Nature 334: 340–343Google Scholar
  4. Everitt DA, Wright SW, Volkman JK, Thomas DP, Lindstrom EJ (1990) Phytoplankton community compositions in the western equatorial Pacific determined from chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment distributions. Deep Sea Res 37: 975–997Google Scholar
  5. Fitzwater SE, Knauer GA, Martin JH (1982) Metal contamination and its effect on primary production measurements. Limnol Oceanogr 27: 544–551Google Scholar
  6. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW (1983) Unknown chlorophyll a derivatives in the North Sea and the tropical Atlantic Ocean revealed by HPLC analysis. Limnol Oceanogr 28: 757–765Google Scholar
  7. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW (1986) Floristic and physiological differences between the shallow and the deep nanoplankton community in the euphotic zone of the open tropical Atlantic revealed by HPLC analysis of pigments. Mar Biol 91: 567–576Google Scholar
  8. Gieskes WWC, Kraay GW, Nontji A, Setiapermana D, Sutomo (1988) Monsoonal alternation of a mixed and a layered structure in the phytoplankton of the euphotic zone of the Banda Sea (Indonesia): a mathematical analysis of algal pigment fingerprints. Neth J Sea Res 22: 123–137Google Scholar
  9. Goericke R (1990) Pigments as ecological tracers for the abundance and growth of marine phytoplankton. PhD Thesis, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  10. Goericke R, Repeta D (1992) The pigments of Prochlorococcus marinus: the presence of divinyl-chlorophyll a and b in a marine cyanobacterium. Limnol Oceanogr (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Johnson PW, Sieburth J McN (1979) Chroococcoid cyanobacteria in the sea: a ubiquitous and diverse phototrophic biomass. Limnol Oceanogr 24: 928–935Google Scholar
  12. Keller MD, Bellows WK, Guillard RRL (1988) Microwave treatment for the sterilization of phytoplankton culture media. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 117: 279–283Google Scholar
  13. Keller MD, Selvin RC, Claus W, Guillard RRL (1987) Media for the culture of oceanic ultraphytoplankton. J Phycol 23: 633–638Google Scholar
  14. Lewin RA (1981) The Prochlorophytes. In: Starr MP, Stolp H, Truper HG, Balows A, Schlegel HG (eds) The prokaryotes, vol 1. Springer, Berlin, pp 256–266Google Scholar
  15. Li WGW, Wood M (1988) Vertical distribution of North Atlantic ultraplankton: analysis by flow cytometry and epifluorescence microscopy. Deep Sea Res 35: 1615–1638Google Scholar
  16. Morden CW, Golden SS (1989a) psbA genes indicate common ancestry of prochlorophytes and chloroplasts. Nature 337: 382–385Google Scholar
  17. Morden CW, Golden SS (1989b) Corrigendum: psbA genes indicate common ancestry of prochlorophytes and chloroplasts. Nature 339: 400Google Scholar
  18. Morel FMM, Reuter JG, Anderson DM, Guillard RRL (1979) Aquil: a chemically defined phytoplankton culture medium for trace metal studies. J Phycol 15: 135–141Google Scholar
  19. Neveux J, Vaulot D, Courties C, Fukai E (1989) Green photosynthetic bacteria associated with the deep chlorophyll maximum of the Sargasso Sea. CR Acad Sci Paris 308: 9–14Google Scholar
  20. Olson RJ, Chisholm SW, Zettler ER, Altabet M, Dusenberry J (1990) Spatial and temporal distributions of prochlorophyte picoplankton in the North Atlantic Ocean. Deep Sea Res 37: 1033–1051Google Scholar
  21. Palenik BP, Haselkorn R (1992) Multiple evolutionary origins of prochlorophytes, the chlorophyll b-containing prokaryotes. Nature 355: 267–269Google Scholar
  22. Sieburth J McN (1983) Microbiological and organic-chemical processes in the surface and mixed layers. In: Liss PS, Slinn WGN (eds) Air-sea exchange of gases and particles. D Reidel Publishing, Dordrecht Boston Lancaster, pp 121–172Google Scholar
  23. Turner S, Burger-Wiersma T, Giovannoni SJ, Mur LR, Pace NR (1989) The relationship of a prochlorophyte Prochlorothrix hollandica to green chloroplasts. Nature 337: 380–382Google Scholar
  24. Urbach E, Robertson D, Chisholm SW (1992) Multiple evolutionary origins of prochlorophytes within the cyanobacterial radiation. Nature 355: 267–269Google Scholar
  25. Vaulot D, Partensky F, Neveux J, Mantoura R, and Llewellyn C (1990) Wintertime presence of prochlorophytes in surface waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Limnol Oceanogr 35: 1156–1164Google Scholar
  26. Veldhuis MJW, Kraay GW (1990) Vertical distribution and pigment composition of a picoplanktonic prochlorophyte in the subtropical N Atlantic: a combined study of HPLC-analysis of pigments and flow cytometry. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 68: 121–127Google Scholar
  27. Waterbury JB, Rippka R (1989) The order Chroococcales. In: Kreig NR, Holt JB (eds) Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology vol 3. Williams and Wilkens, New York, pp 1728–1746Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sallie W. Chisholm
    • 1
  • Sheila L. Frankel
    • 1
  • Ralf Goericke
    • 2
  • Robert J. Olson
    • 2
  • Brian Palenik
    • 1
    • 2
  • John B. Waterbury
    • 2
  • Lisa West-Johnsrud
    • 1
  • Erik R. Zettler
    • 2
  1. 1.48-425 Ralph M. Parsons LaboratoryMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  2. 2.Woods Hole Oceanographic InstitutionWoods HoleUSA

Personalised recommendations