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Specific tension of elbow flexor and extensor muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

  • Yasuo Kawakami
  • Kimitaka Nakazawa
  • Toshiro Fujimoto
  • Daichi Nozaki
  • Mitsumasa Miyashita
  • Tetsuo Fukunaga
Article

Abstract

Series cross-section images of the upper extremity were obtained for four men by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of elbow flexor muscles [biceps brachii (BIC), brachialis (BRA), brachioradialis (BRD)] and extensor muscles [triceps brachii (TRI)] were measured. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was calculated from the muscle volume and muscle fibre length, the former from the series ACSA and the latter from the muscle length multiplied by previously reported fibre/muscle length ratios. Elbow flexion/extension torque was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer and the force at the tendons was calculated from the torque and moment arms of muscles measured by MRI. Maximal ACSA of TRI was comparable to that of total flexors, while PCSA of TRI was greater by 1.9 times. Within flexors, BRA had the greatest contribution to torque (47%), followed by BIC (34%) and BRD (19%). Specific tension related to the estimated velocity of muscle fibres were similar for elbow flexors and extensors, suggesting that the capacity of tension development is analogous between two muscle groups.

Key words

Physiological cross-sectional area Muscle volume Moment arm Torque 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yasuo Kawakami
    • 1
  • Kimitaka Nakazawa
    • 2
  • Toshiro Fujimoto
    • 3
  • Daichi Nozaki
    • 4
  • Mitsumasa Miyashita
    • 4
  • Tetsuo Fukunaga
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports Sciences, College of Arts and SciencesUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.National Rehabilitation CenterSaitamaJapan
  3. 3.Fujimoto HospitalMiyazakiJapan
  4. 4.Laboratory for Sports Sciences, Faculty of EducationUniversity of TokyoTokyoJapan

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