Boundary-Layer Meteorology

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 331–348 | Cite as

Local advection of momentum, heat, and moisture in micrometeorology

  • K. S. Rao
  • J. C. Wyngaard
  • O. R. Coté
Article

Abstract

The local advection of momentum, heat and moisture in micrometeorology due to a horizontal inhomogeneity in surface conditions is numerically investigated by a higher-order turbulence closure model which includes equations for the mean quantities, turbulent fluxes, and the viscous dissipation rate. The application of the two-dimensional model in this paper deals with the simulation of the flow from an extensive smooth dry area to a grassy wet terrain. The mean wind speed, temperature, and humidity distributions in the resulting internal boundary layer downstream of the surface discontinuity are determined such that the energy and moisture balances at the Earth's surface are satisfied.

Numerical calculations of the mean temperature and humidity profiles are compared with available observed ones. The results include the advective effects on turbulent flux distributions, surface energy balance, evaporation rate, and Bowen ratio. The sensitivity of the predicted mean profiles and turbulent flux distributions to the surface relative humidity, thermal stratification, and the roughness change is discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Blad, B. L. and Rosenberg, N. J.: 1974, Lysimetric Calibration of the Bowen Ratio — Energy Balance Method of Evapotranspiration Estimation in the Central Great Plains, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 227–236.Google Scholar
  2. Businger, J. A., Wyngaard, J. C., Izumi, Y., and Bradley, E. F.: 1971, Flux-Profile Relationships in the Atmospheric Surface Layer, J. Atmospheric Sci. 28, 181–189.Google Scholar
  3. Decker, W. L.: 1965, Atmospheric Humidity and the Energy Budget of Plant Canopies, in E. J. Amdur (ed.), Humidity and Moisture - Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, pp. 95–102, Vol. 2, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York.Google Scholar
  4. Donaldson, C. duP.: 1973, ‘Construction of a Dynamic Model of the Production of Atmospheric Turbulence and the Dispersal of Atmospheric Pollutants’, in D. A. Haugen (ed.), Workshop in Micrometeorology, pp. 313–392, Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  5. Dufort, E. C. and Frankel, S. P.: 1953, Stability Conditions in the Numerical Treatment of Parabolic Differential Equations, Math. Tables Aids Comput. 7, 135–152.Google Scholar
  6. Dyer, A. J. and Pruitt, W. O.: 1962, Eddy-Flux Measurements over a Small, Irrigated Area, J. Appl. Meteorol. 1, 471–473.Google Scholar
  7. Dyer, A. J. and Crawford, T. V.: 1965, Observations of the Modification of the Microclimate at a Leading Edge, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 345–348.Google Scholar
  8. Hanjalic, K. and Launder, B. E.: 1972, A Reynolds Stress Model of Turbulence and Its Application to Thin Shear Flows, J. Fluid Mech. 52, 609–638.Google Scholar
  9. Haugen, D. A.: 1973, Workshop in Micrometeorology, 392 pp., Boston, Mass.Google Scholar
  10. Lumley, J. L. and Khajeh-Nouri, B.: 1974, Computational Modeling of Turbulent Transport, Adv. Geophys. 18A, 169–192.Google Scholar
  11. Mellor, G. L.: 1973, Analytical Predictions of the Properties of Stratified Planetary Surface Layers, J. Atmospheric Sci. 30, 1061–1069.Google Scholar
  12. Morgan, D. L., Pruitt, W. O., and Laurence, F. J.: 1970, Evaporation from an Irrigated Turf under Advection of Dry Air at Davis, California, Report ECOM68-G10–1, 95 pp., Univ. of Calif., Davis.Google Scholar
  13. Munn, R. E.: 1966, Descriptive Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 245 pp.Google Scholar
  14. Philip, J. R.: 1959, The Theory of Local Advection: I, J. Meteorol. 16, 535–547.Google Scholar
  15. Rao, K. S., Wyngaard, J. C., and Coté, O. R.: 1974, The Structure of a Two Dimensional Internal Boundary Layer over a Sudden Change of Surface Roughness, J. Atmospheric Sci. 31, 738–746.Google Scholar
  16. Rider, N. E., Philip, J. R., and Bradley, E. F.: 1963, The Horizontal Transport of Heat and Moisture — A Micrometeorological Study, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 89, 507–531.Google Scholar
  17. Rider, N. E., Philip, J. R., and Bradley, E. F.: 1965, Discussions on “The Horizontal Transport of Heat and Moisture — A Micrometeorological Study”, Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. 91, 236–240.Google Scholar
  18. Taylor, P. A.: 1971, Airflow Above Changes in Surface Heat Flux, Temperature and Roughness, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 1, 474–497.Google Scholar
  19. Timofeev, M. P.: 1954, Change in the Meteorological Regime on Irrigation, Izv. Akad. S.S.S.R., Ser. Geograf., No. 2, 118–123.Google Scholar
  20. de Vries, D. A.: 1959, The Influence of Irrigation on the Energy Balance of the Climate near the Ground, J. Meteorol. 16, 256–270.Google Scholar
  21. Wyngaard, J. C. and Coté, O. R.: 1974, The Evolution of a Convective Planetary Boundary Layer — A Higher-Order Closure Model Study, Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 7, 289–308.Google Scholar
  22. Wyngaard, J. C., Coté, O. R., and Izumi, Y.: 1971, Local Free Convection, Similarity, and the Budgets of Shear Stress and Heat Flux, J. Atmospheric Sci. 28, 1171–1182.Google Scholar
  23. Wyngaard, J. C., Coté, O. R., and Rao, K. S.: 1974, Modeling the Atmospheric Boundary Layer, Adv. Geophys. 18A, 193–212.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. S. Rao
    • 1
  • J. C. Wyngaard
    • 1
  • O. R. Coté
    • 1
  1. 1.Air Force Cambridge Research LaboratoriesBedfordU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations