Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 11, Issue 3, pp 179–184 | Cite as

Photoadaptation of sea-ice microalgae in the Barents Sea

  • Geir Johnsen
  • Else Nøst Hegseth
Article

Summary

Variations in under-ice scalar irradiance, P vs I parameters and the CHLa C−1 ratio of natural assemblages of sea-ice microalgae from the Barents Sea growing at -1.8°C in May and September 1988 are described, including one diurnal station. CHLa C−1 ratios of 0.031–0.071 mg mg−1 indicate shade adaptated assemblages both in May and September. Values for αB (photosynthetic efficiency) were generally low, e.g. 0.0025–0.0078 mg C (mg CHLa)−1 h−1 (μmol m−2 s−1)−1, and should be typical for self-shaded algae in mats or aggregates of about 4 mm thickness. Provided no self shading and the typical spectral distribution of light under ice without algae, αB would, however, be about 2.5 times higher. Photoinhibition of the photosynthetic response was negligible. Maximum carbon uptake P m B was 0.15–0.24 and 0.032–0.088 mg C (mg CHLa)−1 h−1 in May and September, respectively. Diurnal variations were small, particularly for P m B . Calculations of the maximum specific gross growth rate yielded an upper limit of 0.20–0.24 and 0.01–0.04 d−1 for assemblages in May and September, respectively; the latter may have been in a resting stage.

Keywords

Growth Rate Microalgae Diurnal Variation Spectral Distribution Photosynthetic Efficiency 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barlow RG, Gosselin M, Legendre L, Therriault J-C, Demers S, Mantoura RFC, Llewellyn CA (1988) Photoadaptive strategies in sea-ice microalgae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 45:137–144Google Scholar
  2. Bates SS, Cota GF (1986) Fluorescence induction and photosynthetic responses of arctic ice algae to sample treatment and salinity. J Phycol 22:421–429Google Scholar
  3. Buch K (1933) Der Borsäuregehalt des Merwassers und seine Bedeutung bei der Berechnung des Kohlensäuresystems im Meerwasser. Rapp Proc Verb Cons Perm Int Explor Mer 85:71–75Google Scholar
  4. Bunt JS (1963) Diatoms of Antarctic sea-ice as agents of primary production. Nature 199:1255–1257Google Scholar
  5. Bunt JS (1964) Primary production of undersea ice in Antarctic waters. 2. Influence of light and other factors on photosynthetic activities of Antarctic marine microalgae. Antarct Res Ser 1:27–31Google Scholar
  6. Clasby RC, Horner R, Alexander V (1972) Ecology and metabolism of sea ice organisms. Inst Mar Sci (Alaska) Rep R72, 56 ppGoogle Scholar
  7. Conover RJ, Cota GF, Harrison GW, Home EPW, Smith REH (1990) Ice/water interactions and their effect on biological oceanography in the arctic archipelago. In: Harington CR (ed) Canada's missing dimension: Science and history in the Canadian islands. Can Mus Nat, Ottawa, pp 204–228Google Scholar
  8. Cota GF (1985) Photoadaptation of high Arctic ice algae. Nature, London 315:219–222Google Scholar
  9. Cota GF, Sullivan CW (1990) Photoadaptation, growth and production of bottom ice algae in the Antarctic. J Phycol 26:399–411Google Scholar
  10. Gilstad M, Sakshaug E (1990) Growth rates of ten diatom species from the Barents Sea at different irradiances and day lengths. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 64:169–173Google Scholar
  11. Gosselin M, Legendre L, Demers S, Ingram RG (1985) Responses of sea-ice microalgae to climatic and fortnightly tidal energy inputs (Manitounuk Sound, Hudson Bay). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 42:999–1006Google Scholar
  12. Grant WS, Horner RA (1976) Growth responses to salinity variation in four arctic ice diatoms. J Phycol 12:180–185Google Scholar
  13. Hegseth EN (1989) Photoadaptation in marine Arctic diatoms. Polar Biol 9:479–486Google Scholar
  14. Holm-Hansen O, Lorenzen CJ, Holmes RW, Strickland JDH (1965) Fluorometric determination of chlorophyll. J Cons Perm Int Explor Mer 30:3–15Google Scholar
  15. Horner RA (1985) Sea ice biota. CRC Press IncGoogle Scholar
  16. Johnsen G (1989) Effect of photoperiod and irradiance on photosynthesis, growth rate, respiration and cell chemistry of the two arctic diatoms Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii Cleve and Chaetoceros furcellatus Bailey. Cand Scient, MSc thesis, University of Trondheim (in Norwegian), 172 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. Langdon C (1988) On the causes of interspecific differences in the growth-irradiance relationship for phytoplankton. II. A general review. J Plankton Res 10:1291–1312Google Scholar
  18. Lewis MR, Smith JC (1983) A small volume, short-incubation-time method for measurement of photosynthesis as a function of incident irradiance. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 13:99–102Google Scholar
  19. Lewis MR, Warnock RE, Platt T (1985) Absorption and photosynthetic action spectra for natural phytoplankton populations: Implications for production in the open ocean. Limnol Oceanogr 30:794–806Google Scholar
  20. Lønne OJ (1988) A diver operated electric suction sampler for sympagic (=under-ice) invertebrates. Polar Res 6:135–136Google Scholar
  21. Maykut GA, Grenfell TC (1975) The spectral distribution of light beneath first-year sea ice in the Arctic Ocean. Limnol Oceanogr 20:554–563Google Scholar
  22. Meguro H, Ito K, Fukushima H (1967) Ice flora (bottom type): A mechanism of primary production in polar seas and the growth of diatoms in sea ice. Arctic 20:114–133Google Scholar
  23. Michel C, Legendre L, Demers S, Therriault J-C (1988) Photoadaptation of sea-ice microalgae in springtime: photosynthesis and carboxylating enzymes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 50:177–185Google Scholar
  24. Mitchell GB, Kiefer DA (1988) Chlorophyll a-specific absorption and fluorescence excitation spectra for light-limited phytoplankton. Deep-Sea Res 35:639–663Google Scholar
  25. Morel A, Lazzara L, Gostan J (1987) Growth rate and quantum yield time response for a diatom to changing irradiances (energy and color). Limnol Oceanogr 32:1066–1084Google Scholar
  26. Neori A, Vernet M, Holm-Hansen O, Haxo FT (1988) Comparison of chlorophyll far-red and red fluorescence excitation spectra with photosynthetic oxygen action spectra for photosysten II in algae. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 44:297–302Google Scholar
  27. Palmisano AC, Sullivan CW (1982) Physiology of sea ice diatoms. 1. Response of three polar diatoms to a simulated summer-winter transition. J Phycol 18:489–498Google Scholar
  28. Palmisano AC, SooHoo JB, Sullivan CW (1985) Photosynthesisirradiance relationships in sea-ice microalgae from McMurdo Sound Antarctica. J Phycol 21:341–346Google Scholar
  29. Palmisano A, SooHoo JB, Sullivan CW (1987) Effects of four environmental variables on photosynthesis-irradiance relationships in Antarctic sea-ice microalgae. Mar Biol 94:299–306Google Scholar
  30. Platt T, Gallegos CL, Harrison WG (1980) Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in natural assemblages of marine phytoplankton. J Mar Res 38:687–701Google Scholar
  31. Platt T, Harrison WG, Irwin B, Horne EP, Gallegos, CL (1982) Photosynthesis and photoadaptation of marine phytoplankton in the Arctic. Deep-Sea Res 29:1159–1170Google Scholar
  32. Rochet M, Legendre L, Demers S (1986) Photosynthetic and pigment responses of sea-ice microalgae to changes in light intensity and quality. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 101:211–226Google Scholar
  33. Sakshaug E (1989) The physiological ecology of polar phytoplankton. In: Rey L, Alexander V (eds) Proc 6th Conf Com Arct Intern, 13–15 May 1985. Brill EJ, pp 62–89Google Scholar
  34. Sakshaug E, Andresen K (1986) Effect of light regime upon growth rate and chemical composition of a clone of Skeletonema costatum from the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, J Plankton Res 8:619–637Google Scholar
  35. Sakshaug E, Holm-Hansen O (1986) Photoadaptation in Antarctic phytoplankton: variations in growth rate, chemical composition and P versus I curves. J Plankton Res 8:459–473Google Scholar
  36. Sakshaug E, Myklestad S, Andresen K, Hegseth EN, Jørgensen L (1981) Phytoplankton off the Møre Coast in 1975–1976: Distribution, species composition, chemical composition and conditions for growth. In: Sætre R, Mork M (eds) The Norwegian Coastal Current, vol II. Proc Norw Coastal Curr Symp, 9–12 September 1980. University of Bergen, pp 681–711Google Scholar
  37. Sakshaug E, Andresen K, Kiefer DA (1989) A steady state description of growth and light absorption in the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Limnol Oceanogr 34:198–205Google Scholar
  38. Sakshaug E, Johnsen G, Andresen K, Vernet M (1991) Modeling of light dependent algal photosynthesis and growth: Experiments with the Barents Sea diatoms Thalassiosira nordenskioeldii and Chaetoceros furcellatus. Deep-Sea Res (in press)Google Scholar
  39. Schindler DW (1966) A liquid scintillation method for measuring 14C uptake in Photosynthesis. Nature 211:844–845Google Scholar
  40. Smith REH, Clement P, Cota GF, Li WKW (1987) Intracellular photosynthate allocation and the control of Arctic marine ice algal production. J Phycol 23:124–132Google Scholar
  41. Smith REH, Anning J, Clement P, Cota G (1988) Abundance and production of ice algae in Resolute Passage, Canadian Arctic. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 48:251–263Google Scholar
  42. Smith REH, Clement P, Head E (1989) Biosynthesis and photosynthate allocation patterns of Arctic ice algae. Limnol Oceanogr 34:591–605Google Scholar
  43. Smith WO, Sakshaug E (1990) Polar phytoplankton. In: Smith WO (ed) Polar oceanography. Academic Press, pp 477–525Google Scholar
  44. SooHoo JB, Palmisano AC, Kottmeier ST, Lizotte MP, SooHoo SL, Sullivan CW (1987) Spectral light absorption and quantum yield of photosynthesis in sea ice microalgae and a bloom of Phaeocystis pouchetii from McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 39:175–189Google Scholar
  45. Sullivan CW, Palmisano AC, SooHoo JB (1984) Influence of sea ice biota on downwelling irradiance and spectral composition of light in McMurdo Sound. In: Blizard MA (ed) Ocean optics, VII SPIE, vol 489. Monterey, Calif, pp 159–165Google Scholar
  46. Tilzer MM, Elbrächter M, Gieskes WW, Beese B (1986) Lighttemperature interactions in the control of photosynthesis in Antarctic phytoplankton. Polar Biol 5:105–11Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geir Johnsen
    • 1
  • Else Nøst Hegseth
    • 2
  1. 1.Trondhjem Biological StationThe Museum, University of TrondheimTrondheimNorway
  2. 2.The Norwegian College of Fisheries ScienceUniversity of TromsøTromsøNorway

Personalised recommendations