Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 303–311 | Cite as

Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb

II. Evidence of fast unconscious processes correcting the trajectory of the hand to the final position of a double-step stimulus
  • D. Pélisson
  • C. Prablanc
  • M. A. Goodale
  • M. Jeannerod
Article

Summary

In this study, a visual target was localized by both limb and eye. The experimental procedure provided an opportunity to analyze the limb movement trajectories to the target whose location was displaced during saccades. Absence of visual information about position of the moving limb did not interfere with correction of the trajectory of pointing movements. These corrections reflect the new information about target position that becomes available at the end of the first saccade. Mean localization errors to stationary and to displaced targets were not significantly different. This result suggests that subjects were able to compare visual (retinal + eye position) information about the position of the target with information about the position of their moving limb derived from kinesthesis and/or efference copies of the motor commands. An analysis of velocity profiles indicates that the observed corrections of hand movement to target displacement could not be identified by an inflexion point in the trajectory. None of the subjects reported seeing the target change location. In other words, the motor command was adjustable despite the failure of changes in visual locus to reach consciousness.

Key words

Double-step stimulation Pointing Online control Goal encoding Eye-hand coordination Man 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams RA, Kornblum S, Meyer DE (1983) Fitts' law: optimization of initial ballistic impulses for aimed movements. Bull Psychonom Soc 22: 335Google Scholar
  2. Anderson TW (1958) An introduction to multivariate statistical analysis. Wiley, New York, 102–109, pp 48–49Google Scholar
  3. Becker W, Fuchs AF (1969) Further properties of the human saccadic system: eye movements and correction saccades with and without visual fixation points. Vision Res 19: 1247–1258Google Scholar
  4. Becker W, Jürgens R (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of double step stimuli. Vision Res 19: 967–983CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bridgeman B, Lewis S, Heit G, Nagle M (1979) Relation between cognitive and motor-oriented systems of visual position perception. J Exp Psychol 5: 692–700Google Scholar
  6. Biguer B, Jeannerod M, Prablanc C (1982) The coordination of eye, head and arm movements during reaching at a single visual target. Exp Brain Res 46: 301–304Google Scholar
  7. Brooks BA, Fuchs AF (1975) Influence of stimulus parameters on visual sensitivity during saccadic eye movement. Vision Res 15: 1389–1398Google Scholar
  8. Campbell FW, Wurtz RH (1978) Saccadic omission: why we do not see a grey-out during a saccadic eye movement. Vision Res 18: 1297–1303Google Scholar
  9. Carlton LG (1981) Processing visual feedback information for movement control. J Exp Psychol 7: 1019–1030Google Scholar
  10. Crossman ERFW, Goodeve PJ (1963) Feedback control of hand movement and Fitts' law. Published (1983) Q J Exp Psychol 35A: 251–278Google Scholar
  11. Dodge R (1900) Visual perception during eye movement. Psychol Rev 7: 454–465Google Scholar
  12. Fisk JD and Goodale MA (1985) The organization of eye and limbs movements during unrestricted reaching to targets in controlateral and ipsilateral visual space. Exp Brain Res 60: 159–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fitts PM (1954) The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement. J Exp Psychol 47: 381–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Massey JT (1981) Spatial trajectories and reaction times of aimed movements: effects of practice, uncertainty and change in target location. J Neurophysiol 46: 725–743Google Scholar
  15. Gielen CCAM, Van der Heuvel PJM, Van Gisbergen JAM (1984) Coordination of fast eye and arm movements in a tracking task. Exp Brain Res 56: 154–161Google Scholar
  16. Hallett PE, Lightstone AD (1976a) Saccadic eye movements towards stimuli triggered by prior saccades. Vision Res 16: 99–106Google Scholar
  17. Hallett PE, Lightstone AD (1976b) Saccadic eye movements to flashed targets. Vision Res 16: 107–114Google Scholar
  18. Henson DB (1978) Corrective saccades: effects of altering visual feedback. Vision Res 18: 63–67Google Scholar
  19. Keele SW, Posner MI (1968) Processing visual feedback in rapid movements. J Exp Psychol 77: 155–158Google Scholar
  20. Lennie P, Sidwell A (1978) Saccadic eye movements and visual stability. Nature 275: 766–768Google Scholar
  21. MacKay DM (1970) Elevation of visual threshold by displacement of retinal image. Nature 225: 90–92Google Scholar
  22. MacLaughlin S (1967) Parametric adjustment in saccadic eye movements. Percept Psychophys 2: 359–362Google Scholar
  23. Mather JA, Fisk JD (1985) Orienting to targets by looking and pointing. I. Parallels and interactions in ocular and manual performance. Q J Exp Psychol 37A: 315–338Google Scholar
  24. Matin L (1982) Visual localization and eye movements. In: Wertheim AH, Wagenaar AW, Leibowitz HW (eds) Tutorials on motion perception. Plenum Press, New York, pp 101–156Google Scholar
  25. Megaw ED (1974) Possible modification to a rapid on-going programmed manual response. Brain Res 71: 425–441Google Scholar
  26. Paillard J (1982) The contribution of peripheral and central vision to visually guided reaching. In: Ingle GL, Goodale MA, Mensfield RJW (eds) Analysis of visual behavior. The MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  27. Prablanc C, Jeannerod M (1974) Corrective saccades: dependance on retinal reafferent signal. Vision Res 15: 465–469Google Scholar
  28. Prablanc C, Pélisson D, Goodale MA (1986) Visual control of reaching movements without vision of the limb. I. Role of retinal feedback of target position in guiding the hand. Exp Brain Res 62: 293–302Google Scholar
  29. Soechting JF, Lacquaniti F (1983) Modification of trajectory of a pointing movement in response to a change in target location. J Neurophysiol 49: 548–564Google Scholar
  30. Stark L, Bridgeman B (1983) Role of corollary discharge in space constancy. Percept Psychophys 34: 371–380Google Scholar
  31. Täumer R (1975) Three reaction mechanisms of the saccadic system in response to a double jump. In: Basic mechanisms of ocular motility and clinical implications. Lennerstrand & Bach-Y-Rita, pp 515–518Google Scholar
  32. Volkmann FC, Riggs LA, Moore RK, White KD (1978) Central and peripheral determinants of saccadic suppression. In: Senders JM, Fisher DF, Monty RA (eds) Eye movements and the higher psychological functions. Hillsdale, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  33. Wheless LJ, Boynton R, Cohen G (1966) Eye-movement responses to step and pulse step stimuli. J Opt Soc Am 56: 956–960Google Scholar
  34. Woodworth RS (1899) The accuracy of voluntary movement. Psychol Rev Monogr Suppl 3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Pélisson
    • 1
  • C. Prablanc
    • 1
  • M. A. Goodale
    • 2
  • M. Jeannerod
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Neuropsychologie ExpérimentaleINSERM - Unité 94BronFrance
  2. 2.Faculty of Social Sciences, Dept. of PsychologyThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada

Personalised recommendations