Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 159–178

The organization of eye and limb movements during unrestricted reaching to targets in contralateral and ipsilateral visual space

  • J. D. Fisk
  • M. A. Goodale
Article

Summary

The spatial and temporal organixation of unrestricted limb movements directed to small visual targets was examined in two separate experiments. Videotape records of the subjects' performance allowed us to analyze the trajectory of the limb movement through 3-dimensional space. Horizontal eye movements during reaching were measured by infrared corneal reflection. In both experiments, the trajectories of the different reaches approximated straight line paths and the velocity profile revealed an initial rapid acceleration followed by a prolonged period of deceleration. In Experiment 1, in which the target light was presented to the right or left of a central fixation point at either 10° or 20° eccentricity, the most consistent differences were observed between reaches directed across the body axis to targets presented in the contralateral visual field and reaches directed at ipsilateral targets. Ipsilateral reaches were initiated more quickly, were completed more rapidly, and were more accurate than contralateral reaches. While these findings suggest that hemispherically organized neural systems are involved in the programming of visually guided limb movements, it was not clear whether the inefficiency of the contralateral movements was due to reaching across the body axis or reaching into the visual hemifield contralateral to the hand being used. Therefore, in Experiment 2, the position of the fixation point was varied such that the effects of visual field and body axis could be disembedded. In this experiment, the kinematics of the reaching movement were shown to be independent of the point of visual fixation and varied only as a function of the laterality of the target position relative to the body axis. This finding suggests that the kinematics of a reaching movement are determined by differences in the processing of neural systems associated with motor output, after the target has been localized in space. The effect of target laterality on response latency and accuracy, however, could not be attributed to a single frame of reference, or to a simple additive effect of both. These findings illustrate the complex integration of visual spatial information which must take place in order to reach accurately to goal objects in extrapersonal space. Comparison of ocular and manual performance revealed a close relationship between movement latency for both motor systems. Thus, rightward-going eye movements to a given target were initiated more quickly when accompanied by reaches with the right hand than when they were accompanied by reaches with the left hand. The finding that the latency of eye movements in one direction was influenced by which hand was being used to reach suggests that reaching toward a target under visual control involves a common integration of both eye and hand movements.

Key words

Limb movements Laterality Visually guided reaching Visuomotor behaviour Eye movements 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abend W, Bizzi E, Morasso P (1982) Human arm trajectory formation. Brain 105: 331–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anzola G, Bertoloni G, Buchtel H, Rizzolatti G (1977) Spatial compatibility and anatomical factors in simple and choice reaction time. Neuropsychologia 15: 295–302Google Scholar
  3. Bashore TR (1981) Vocal and manual reaction time estimates of interhemispheric transmission time. Psychol Bull 89: 352–368Google Scholar
  4. Beaubaton D, Hay L (1982) Integration of visual cues in rapid goal-directed movements. Behav Brain Res 5: 92–93Google Scholar
  5. Biguer B, Jeannerod M, Prablanc P (1982) The coordination of eye, head and arm movements during reaching at a single visual target. Exp Brain Res 46: 301–304Google Scholar
  6. Bizzi E, Acconero N, Chapple W, Hogan N (1982) Arm trajectory formation in monkeys. Exp Brain Res 46: 139–143Google Scholar
  7. Bowers D, Heilman K (1980) Pseudoneglect: effects of hemispace on a tactile line bisection task. Neuropsychologia 18: 491–498Google Scholar
  8. Bowers D, Heilman K, Van Den Abell T (1981) Hemispace-VHP compatibility. Neuropsychologia 19: 757–765Google Scholar
  9. Brinkman J, Kuypers HGJM (1973) Cerebral control of contralateral and ipsilateral arm, hand and finger movements in the split-brain rhesus monkey. Brain 96: 653–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlton LG (1981) Processing visual feedback information for movement control. J Exp Psychol (Hum Percept) 7: 1019–1030Google Scholar
  11. Carpenter RHS (1977) Movements of the eyes. Pion, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooke JD (1980) The organization of simple skilled movements. In: Stelmach GE, Requin J (eds) Tutorials in motor behaviour. North-Holland Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Fisk JD, Goodale MA (1983) Eye and limb movements in visually guided reaching. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 24 (Suppl): 82Google Scholar
  14. Fisk JD, Goodale MA (1984) Differences in the organization of visually guided reaching to ipsilateral and contralateral targets. Behav Brain Res 12: 189–190Google Scholar
  15. Flament D, Hore J, Vilis T (1984) Braking of fast and accurate elbow flexions in the monkey. J Physiol (Lond) 349: 195–203Google Scholar
  16. Freund HJ, Budingen HJ (1978) The relationship between speed and amplitude of the fastest voluntary contractions of human arm muscles. Exp Brain Res 31: 1–12Google Scholar
  17. Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Massey JT (1981) Spatial trajectories and reaction times of aimed movements: effects of practice, uncertainty, and change in target location. J Neurophysiol 46: 725–743Google Scholar
  18. Goodale MA, Fisk JD (1984) Laterality differences in eye-hand organization during visually guided reaching. Behav Brain Res 12: 194–195Google Scholar
  19. Hallet M, Marsden CD (1979) Ballistic flexion movements of the human thumb. J Physiol (Lond) 294: 33–50Google Scholar
  20. Hay L (1979) Spatial-temporal analysis in children: motor programs versus feedback in the development of reaching. J. Motor Behav 11: 189–200Google Scholar
  21. Heilman KM (1979) Neglect and related disorders. In: Heilman KM, Valenstein E (eds) Clinical neuropsychology. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. Jeannerod M (1984) The timing of natural prehension movements. J Mot Behav 16: 235–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Keele SW, Posner MI (1968) Processing of visual feedback in rapid movements. J Exp Psychol 77: 155–158Google Scholar
  24. Kimura D (1982) Left-hemisphere control of oral and brachial movements and their relation to communication. Philos Trans R Soc Lond (Biol) 298: 135–149Google Scholar
  25. Lacquaniti F, Soechting JF (1982) Coordination of arm and wrist motion during a reaching task. J Neurosci 2: 399–408Google Scholar
  26. Lawrence DG, Kuypers HGJM (1968a) The functional organization of the motor system in the monkey. I: the effects of bilateral pyramidal lesions. Brain 91: 1–14Google Scholar
  27. Lawrence DG, Kuypers HGJM (1968b) The functional organization of the motor system in the monkey. II: the effects of lesions of the descending brainstem pathways. Brain 91:15–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Lestienne F (1979) Effects of inertial load and velocity on the braking process of voluntary limb movements. Exp Brain Res 35: 407–418Google Scholar
  29. Morasso P (1981) Spatial control of arm movements. Exp Brain Res 42: 223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Ostry DJ, Keller E, Parush A (1983) Similarities in the control of the speech articulators and limbs: kinematics of tongue dorsum movement in speech. J Exp Psychol (Hum Percept) 9: 622–636Google Scholar
  31. Paillard J (1982) The contribution of peripheral and central vision to visually guided reaching. In: Ingle D, Goodale MA, Mansfield RJW (eds) Analysis of visual behaviour. MIT Press, Cambridge MAGoogle Scholar
  32. Paillard J, Beaubaton D (1975) Problemes poses par le controle visuel de la motricite proximale et distale apres disconnexion hemispherique chez le singe. In: Schott B, Michel F (eds) Les syndromes de disconnection calleuse chez l'homme. Presses de l'Universite de Lyon, LyonGoogle Scholar
  33. Pfoffenberger AT (1912) Reaction time to retinal stimulation with special reference to the time lost in conduction through nervous centers. Arch Psychol 23: 1–73Google Scholar
  34. Prablanc C, Eschallier JF, Komilis E, Jeannerod M (1979) Optimal response of eye and hand motor systems in pointing at a visual target. Biol Cybern 35: 113–124Google Scholar
  35. Soechting JF (1984) Effect of target size on spatial and temporal characteristics of a pointing movement in man. Exp Brain Res 54: 121–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Woodworth RS (1899) The accuracy of voluntary movements. Psychol Mono 3: Whole No. 13Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Fisk
    • 1
  • M. A. Goodale
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyThe University of Western OntarioLondonCanada
  2. 2.Camp Hill HospitalHalifaxCanada

Personalised recommendations