Advertisement

Polar Biology

, Volume 12, Issue 6–7, pp 609–627 | Cite as

Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger: The most abundant diatom in water column assemblages of Antarctic marginal ice-edge zones

  • Sung-Ho Kang
  • Greta A. Fryxell
Article

Summary

Planktonic diatoms were sampled in the ice-edge zone of the Bellingshausen Sea during the early austral spring of 1990 and of the Weddell Sea during the late spring of 1983, the autumn of 1986, and the winter of 1988. The four cruises in the Antarctic marginal ice edge zones, combined with the summer cruise in Prydz Bay during a brief ice-free period (1988) provided us with opportunities for spatial and seasonal studies of diatom abundance and distribution in the water column. Cells from discrete water samples from 73 stations near the marginal ice-edge zones during all seasons were counted to gain quantitative information on the composition, abundance, and distribution of diatoms. Diatom abundance was dominated by the pennate diatom, usually nanoplanktonic, Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grunow) Krieger, during all five cruises. The highest integrated numbers of F. cylindrus were found during the summer cruise with 7.9 × 1010 cells m−2 and the lowest numbers were found during the winter cruise with 1.1 × 108 cells m−2. The average integrated abundance of F. cylindrus from the five cruises was about 35% of the total diatom abundance. The overall spatial pattern of F. cylindrus near the marginal ice-edge zones during the five seasonal cruises were similar with the highest number of cells in open waters compared to ice-covered waters. When all 73 stations during the five cruises were included in the correlation analysis, the abundance of total diatoms was positively correlated with the abundance of F. cylindrus, suggesting that the ice-edge pulses of diatom assemblages in the water column largely reflected its abundance. Cluster analysis revealed that the stations in marginal ice-edge zones were not only separated by seasons and locations, but they also separated based on location of stations in relation to the ice edge (open water stations vs. ice-covered stations).

Keywords

Diatom Assemblage Diatom Abundance Total Diatom Open Water Station Summer Cruise 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ackley SF (1985) Pressure ridge associated microbial communities in Antarctic sea ice. EOS 66:1278Google Scholar
  2. Ainley DO, Fraser WR, Sullivan CW, Torres JJ, Hopkins TL, Smith WO Jr (1986) Antarctic mesopelagic micronekton: evidence from seabirds that pack ice affects community structure. Science 232:847–849Google Scholar
  3. Buck KR, Garrison DL (1983) Protists from the ice-edge region of the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 30:1261–1277Google Scholar
  4. Clarke DB, Ackley SF (1984) Sea ice structure and biological activity in the Antarctic marginal ice zone. J Geophys Res 89:2087–2095Google Scholar
  5. Cota GF, Smith WO Jr (1989) Phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the marginal ice zone of the Weddell-Scotia Sea during austral winter. Antarct J US 24:152–153Google Scholar
  6. Crumpton WG (1987) A simple and reliable method for making permanent mounts of phytoplankton for light and fluorescence microscopy. Limnol Oceanogr 32:1154–1159Google Scholar
  7. El-Sayed SZ, Taguchi S (1981) Primary production and standing crop of phytoplankton along the ice-edge in the Weddell Sea. Deep-Sea Res 28:1017–1032Google Scholar
  8. El-Sayed SZ, Weber LH (1982) Spatial and temporal variations in phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in the south-west Atlantic and the Scotia Sea. Polar Biol 1:83–90Google Scholar
  9. Fenner J, Schrader HJ, Wienigk H (1976) Diatom phytoplankton studies in the southern Pacific Ocean, composition and correlation to the antarctic convergence and its paleoceanographical significance. In: Hollister CD, Craddock, C (eds) Init Rept DSDP 25, Washington (US Govt Printing Office), pp 757–813Google Scholar
  10. Frenguelli J, Orlando H (1958). Diatomeas y silicoflagelados del sector Antartico Su damericano. Inst. Antarct Argent 5:1–191Google Scholar
  11. Fryxell GA (1986) Microalgae at the ice edge in the northern Weddell Sea. Antarct J US 21:166–168Google Scholar
  12. Fryxell GA, Kendrick GA (1988) Austral spring microalgae across the Weddell Sea ice edge: spatial relationships found along a northward transect during AMBRIEZ 83. Deep-Sea Res 35:1–20Google Scholar
  13. Fryxell GA, Kang S-H, Reap ME (1987) AMBRIEZ 1986; Phytoplankton at the Weddell Sea ice edge. Antarct J US 22:173–175Google Scholar
  14. Fryxell GA, Kang S-H, Ashworth TK (1989) AMBRIEZ 1988 and ODP Leg 119: Antarctic phytoplankton summer and winter stage indicators. Antarct J US 24:156–157Google Scholar
  15. Fryxell GA, Reap ME, Kang S-H (1988) Antarctic phytoplankton dominants, life stages, and indicators. Antarct J US 23:129–131Google Scholar
  16. Garrison DL, Buck KR (1985) Sea-ice algal communities in the Weddell Sea: Species composition in ice and plankton assemblages. In: Gary JS, Christiansen ME (eds) Marine biology of polar regions and effects of stress on marine organisms. J Wiley, New York, pp 103–122Google Scholar
  17. Garrison DL, Buck KR (1989a) Protozooplankton in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: abundance and distribution in the ice-edge zone. Polar Biol 9:341–351Google Scholar
  18. Garrison DL, Buck KR (1989b) The biota of Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea and Antarctic peninsula regions. Polar Biol 10:211–219Google Scholar
  19. Garrison DL, Sullivan CW, Ackley SF (1986) Sea ice microbial communities in Antarctica. BioScience 36:243–250Google Scholar
  20. Garrison DL, Buck KR, Fryxell GA (1987) Algal assemblages in antarctic pack ice and in ice-edge plankton. J Phycol 23:564–572Google Scholar
  21. Hallegraeff GM (1981) Seasonal study of phytoplankton pigments and species at a coastal station off Sydney: importance of diatoms and the nanoplankton. Mar Biol 61:107–118Google Scholar
  22. Hannah FJ, Boney AD (1983) Nanophytoplankton in the Firth of Clyde, Scotland: seasonal abundance, carbon fixation and species composition. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 67:105–147Google Scholar
  23. Hasle GR (1965a) Nitzschia and Fragilariopsis species studied in the light and electron microscopes. II. The group Pseudonitzschia. Skr Nor Vidensk-Akad Olso 18:5–15Google Scholar
  24. Hasle GR (1965b) Nitzschia and Fragilariopsis species in the light and electron microscopes. III. The genus Fragilariopsis. Skr Nor Vidensk-Akad Olso 21:5–49Google Scholar
  25. Hasle GR (1969) An analysis of the phytoplankton of the Pacific Southern Ocean: abundance, composition, and distribution during the Brategg Expedition, 1947–1948. Hvaldradets Skr 52:1–168Google Scholar
  26. Hasle GR (1972) Fragilariopsis Hustedt as a section of the genus Nitzschia Hassall. Beih Nov Hedw 54:15–66Google Scholar
  27. Hasle GR (1978) The inverted microscope method. In: Sournia A (ed) Monographs on oceanic Methodology. 6. Phytoplankton manual. UNESCO, Paris, pp 88–96Google Scholar
  28. Hempel G (1985) Antarctic marine food webs. In: Siegfried WR, Condy PR, Laws RM (eds) Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs. Springer, Berlin, pp 226–270Google Scholar
  29. Hewes CD, Reid FMH, Holm-Hansen O (1984) The quantitative analysis of nanoplankton: a study of methods. J Plankton Res 6:601–613Google Scholar
  30. Husby DM, Muench RD, Gunn J (1989) Oceanographic observations in the Scotia Sea marginal ice zone June–August 1988. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-127Google Scholar
  31. Hustedt F (1958) Diatomeen aus der Antarktis und dem Südatlantik. Dtsch Antarkt Exped 1938–39. Wiss Ergebn 2:103–191Google Scholar
  32. Jouse AP, Koroleva GS, Nagaeva GA (1962): Diatomorrje Vodorosli v poverkhnostnom Sloe Donnykh Osadkov Indiiskogo Sketora Antarktiki. Trudy Inst Oceanol 61:19–92Google Scholar
  33. Kang S-H (1989) Diatom species composition and abundance in water column assemblages from five drill sites in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 119: distributional patterns. MS thesis, Texas A and M University, College Station, TexasGoogle Scholar
  34. Kang S-H (1992) Phytoplankton in the Antarctic marginal ice edge zones. PhD Diss, Texas A and M University, College Station, TexasGoogle Scholar
  35. Kang S-H, Fryxell GA (1989) Comparative method of quantitative analysis of diatoms in water column assemblages in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 119. EOS 70:376Google Scholar
  36. Kang S-H, Fryxell GA (1991) Most abundant diatom species in water column assemblages from five ODP Leg 119 drill sites in Prydz Bay, Antarctica: distributional patterns. In: Barron J, Larsen B (eds) Proc ODP Sci Res, 119. College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp 645–666Google Scholar
  37. Kang S-H, Fryxell GA, Roelke DL (1992) Fragilariopsis cylindrus (Grurow) Krieger compared with Antarctic Bacillariaceae in marginal ice edge zones. Beih Nov Hedw (in press)Google Scholar
  38. Kozlova OG (1962) Specific composition of diatoms in the waters of the Indian sector of the Antarctic. Trudy Inst Oceanol 61:3–18Google Scholar
  39. Malone TC (1980) Algal size. In: Moris I (ed) The physiological ecology of phytoplankton. Blackwell, London, pp 433–463Google Scholar
  40. Manguin E (1960) Les diatomees de la Terre Adelie Campagne du “Commandant Charcot”, 1949–1950. Ann Sci Nat, Ser A 12:223–363Google Scholar
  41. Medlin, I.K, Priddle J (1990) Polar marine diatoms. Br Antarct Surv, Nat Environ Res Coun, pp 1–214Google Scholar
  42. Nelson DM, Smith WO Jr (1986) Phytoplankton bloom dynamics of the western Ross Sea ice edge. II. Mesoscale cycling of nitrogen and silicon. Deep-Sea Res 33:1389–1412Google Scholar
  43. Nelson DM, Smith WO Jr, Gordon LI, Huber BA (1987) Spring distributions of density, nutrients, and phytoplankton biomass in the ice edge zone of the Weddell-Scotia Sea. J Geophys Res 92:7181–7190Google Scholar
  44. Nelson DM, Smith WO Jr, Muench RD, Gordon LI, Sullivan CW, Husby DM (1989) Particulate matter and nutrient distributions in the ice-edge zone of the Weddell Sea: Relationship to hydrography during late summer. Deep-Sea Res 36:191–209Google Scholar
  45. Pomeroy LR (1974) The ocean's food web, a changing paradigm. BioScience 24:499–504Google Scholar
  46. Reid FMH (1983) Biomass estimate of components of the marine nanoplankton and picoplankton by the Utermöhl settling technique. J Plankton Res 5:235–252Google Scholar
  47. Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG (1990) The Diatoms: Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, pp 1–747Google Scholar
  48. Smith RC, Prézelin BB, Baker KS, Bidigare RR, Boucher NP, Coley T, Karentz D, MacIntyre S, Matlick HA, Menziez D, Ondrusek M, Wan Z, Waters KJ (1992) Ozone depletion: Ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters. Science 255:952–959Google Scholar
  49. Smith WO Jr (1987) Phytoplankton dynamics in marginal ice zones. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 25:11–38Google Scholar
  50. Smith WO Jr, Garrison DL (1990) Marine ecosystem research at the Weddell Sea ice edge: The AMERIEZ Program. Oceanography 3:22–29Google Scholar
  51. Smith WO Jr, Nelson DM (1985) Phytoplankton bloom produced by a receding ice edge in the Ross Sea: Spatial coherence with the density field. Science 227:163–166Google Scholar
  52. Smith WO Jr, Nelson DM (1986) Importance of ice edge phyto plankton production in the Southern Ocean. BioScience 36:251–257Google Scholar
  53. Smith WO Jr, Nelson DM (1990) Phytoplankton growth and new production in the Weddell Sea marginal ice zone in the austral spring and autumn. Limnol Oceanogr 35:809–821Google Scholar
  54. Sommer U (1989) Maximal growth rates of Antarctic phytoplankton: Only weak dependence on cell size. Limnol Oceanogr 34:1109–1112Google Scholar
  55. Sullivan CW, Ainley DG (1987) AMERIEZ 1986: A summary of activities on board the R/V Melville and USCGC Glacier. Antarct J US 22:167–169Google Scholar
  56. Sullivan CW, McClain CR, Comiso JC, Smith WO Jr (1988) Phytoplankton standing crops within an Antarctic ice edge assessed by satellite remote sensing. J Geophys Res 93:12,487–12,498Google Scholar
  57. Sullivan CW, Cota GF, Krempin DW, Smith WO Jr (1990) Distribution and activity of bacterioplankton in the marginal ice zone of the Weddell-Scotia Sea during austral spring. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 63:239–252Google Scholar
  58. Utermöhl H (1958) Zur Vervollkommnung der quantitative Phytoplankton-Methodik. Mitt Int Verh Theor Angew Limnol Ver 9:38Google Scholar
  59. Weber LH, El-Sayed SZ (1987) Contributions of the net, nano- and picoplankton to the phytoplankton standing crop and primary productivity in the Southern Ocean. J Plankton Res 9:973–994Google Scholar
  60. Wilson DL, Smith WO Jr, Nelson DM (1986) Phytoplankton bloom dynamics of the western Ross Sea ice edge. I. Primary productivity and species-specific production. Deep-Sea Res 33:1375–1378Google Scholar
  61. Zwally HJ, Comisco JC, Parkinson CL, Campbell WJ, Carsey FD, Gloersen P (1983) Antarctic sea ice, 1973–1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations, NASA SP-459, US Government Printing Office, Washington DC, 206 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sung-Ho Kang
    • 1
  • Greta A. Fryxell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OceanographyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations