Atrial natriuretic peptide during and after maximal and submaximal exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions

  • W. Schmidt
  • G. Brabant
  • C. Kröger
  • S. Strauch
  • A. Hilgendorf


The present study was designed to investigate the influence of exercise intensity and duration as well as of inspiratory oxygen content on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration ([ANP]) and furthermore to compare ANP with the effect on aldosterone concentration ([Aldo]). Ten untrained male subjects performed a maximal exercise test (ME) on a cycle ergometer and a submaximal test of 60-min duration at 60% of maximal performance (SE) under normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H) (partial pressure of oxygen: 12.3 kPa). Five subjects were exposed to hypoxia at rest for 90 min. The [ANP] was mostly affected by exercise intensity (5 min after ME-N, +298.1%, SEM 39.1%) and less by exercise duration (at the end of SE-N: +229.5%, SEM 33.2%). Hypoxia had no effect at rest and reduced the exercise response (ME-H, +184.3%, SEM 27.2%; SE-H, +172.4%, SEM 15.7%). In contrast to ANP, the Aldo response was affected more by duration at submaximal level (+290.1%, SEM 34.0%) than by short maximal exercise (+235.7%, SEM 22.2%). Exposure to hypoxia rapidly decreased [Aldo] (−28.5%, SEM 3.7% after 30 min, P<0.01), but did not influence the exercise effects (ME-H, +206.2%, SEM 26.4%; SE-H, +321.6%, SEM 51.6%). The [ANP] increase was faster than that of [Aldo] during the maximal tests and there was no difference during submaximal exercise. Changes in plasma volume (PV), sodium concentration, and osmolality (Osm) were most pronounced during maximal exercise (for ME-N: PV −13.1%, SD 3.6%, sodium +6.2 mmol·1−1, SD 2.7, Osm +18.4 mosmol·kg H2O−1, SD 6.5). Regression analysis showed high correlations between changes in [ANP] and in Osm during and after maximal exercise and between changes in [ANP] and heart rate for submaximal exercise. It is concluded that besides other mechanisms increased Osm might be involved in the exercise-dependent increase of plasma [ANP].

Key words

Aldosterone Plasma volume Osmolality Sodium Heart rate 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adnot S, Chabrier PE, Brun-Brisson C, Viossat I, Braquet P (1988) Atrial natriuretic factor attenuates the pulmonary pressor response to hypoxia. J Appl Physiol 65:1975–1983Google Scholar
  2. Atlas SA, Laragh JH (1986) Atrial natriuretic peptide: a new factor in hormonal control of blood pressure and electrolyte homeostasis. Ann Rev Med 37:397–414Google Scholar
  3. Baxter JD, Lewicki JA, Gardner DG (1988) Atrial natriuretic peptide. Biotechnology 6:529–546Google Scholar
  4. Bittner H, Rippegather G, Völker K, Hollmann W, Forssmann WG (1986) Freisetzung kardialer Hormone unter ergometrischer Belastung. Dtsch Z Sportmed 37:356–360Google Scholar
  5. Bouissou P, Peronet F, Brisson G, Helie R, Ledoux M (1987) Fluid-electrolyte shift and renin-aldosterone response to exercise under hypoxia. Horm Metab Res 19:331–334Google Scholar
  6. Bouissou P, Guezennec CY, Galen FX, Defer G, Fiet J, Pesquies PC (1988) Dissociated response of aldosterone from plasma renin activity during prolonged exercise under hypoxia. Horm Metab Res 20:517–521Google Scholar
  7. Bouissou P, Galen FX, Richalet JP, Lartigue M, Devaux F, Dubray C, Atlan G (1989a) Effects of propanolol and pindolol on plasma ANP levels in humans at rest and during exercise. Am J Physiol 257:R259-R264Google Scholar
  8. Bouissou P, Richalet JP, Galen FX, Lartigue M, Larmignat P, Devaux F, Dubray C, Keromes A (1989b) Effect of β-adrenoceptor blockade on renin-aldosterone and alpha-ANP during exercise at altitude. J Appl Physiol 67:141–146Google Scholar
  9. Bub A, Manzl G, Weicker H, Forssmann WG (1989) Freisetzung kardialer Hormone bei Höhenexposition. In: Böning D, Braumann KM, Busse M, Maassen N, Schmidt W (eds) Sport — Rettung oder Risiko für die Gesundheit. Deutscher Ärzte, Cologne pp 235–240Google Scholar
  10. Cantin M, Genest J (1985) The heart and the atrial natriuretic factor. Endocr Rev 6:107–127Google Scholar
  11. Cheung CY, Miner LK, Brace RA (1989) Hyperosmolality elevates plasma atrial natriuretic factor in the ovine fetus. Am J Physiol 257:E466-E472Google Scholar
  12. Clozel JP, Saunier C, Hartmann D, Allam M, Fischli W (1989) Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on atrial natriuretic factor and plasma renin activity in conscious dogs. Clin Sci 76:249–254Google Scholar
  13. Cuneo RC, Espiner EA, Nicholls MG, Yandle TG, Livesey JH (1987) Effect of physiological levels of atrial natriuretic peptide on hormone secretion: inhibition of angiotensin-induced secretion and renin release in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:765–772Google Scholar
  14. Dill DB, Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 37:247–248Google Scholar
  15. Donckier JE, De Coster PM, Buysschaert M, Van Hoof M, Cauwe FM, Robert A, Berbinschi AC, Ketelslegers JM (1989) Effect of beta-adrenergic blockade on plasma atrial natriuretic factor and cardiac volumes during exercise in normal men. Am J Cardiol 63:1000–1002Google Scholar
  16. Du Souich P, Saunier C, Hartmann D, Sautegeau A, Ong H, Larose P, Rabini R (1987) Effect of moderate hypoxemia on atrial natriuretic factor and arginine vasopressine in normal men. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 148:906–912Google Scholar
  17. Follenius M, Candas C, Bothorel B, Brandenberger G (1989) Effect of rehydration on atrial natriuretic peptide release during exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol 66:2516–2521Google Scholar
  18. Freund BJ, Claybaugh JR, Dice MS, Hashiro GM (1987) Hormonal and vascular fluid responses to maximal exercise in trained and untrained males. J Appl Physiol 63:669–675Google Scholar
  19. Gibbs DM (1987) Noncalcium-dependent modulation of in vitro atrial natriuretic factor release by extracellular osmolality. Endocrinology 120:194–197Google Scholar
  20. Greenleaf E, Bernauer EM, Adams WC, Juhos L (1978) Fluidelectrolyte shifts and VO2max in man at simulated altitude (2287 m). J Appl Physiol 44:652–658Google Scholar
  21. Guezennec CY, Fournier E, Galen FX, Lartigues M, Louisy F, Gutkowska J (1989) Effects of physical exercise and anti-G suit inflation on atrial natriuretic factor plasma level. Eur J Appl Physiol 58:500–507Google Scholar
  22. Hirata Y, Ishii M, Sugimoto TO, Matsuoka H, Ishimitsu T, Atarashi K, Sugimoto TS, Miyata A, Kangawa K, Matsuo H (1987) Relationship between the renin-aldosterone system and atrial natriuretic polypeptide in rats. Clin Sci 72:165–170Google Scholar
  23. Iitake K, Kimura T, Ota K, Shoji M, Inoue M, Ohta M, Sato K, Yamamoto T, Yasujima M, Abe K, Yoshinaga K (1989) Responses of vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, and blood pressure to central osmotic stimulation. Am J Physiol 257:E611-E616Google Scholar
  24. Kamoi K, Sato S, Arai O, Ishibashi M, Yamaji T (1988) Effects of plasma volume and osmolality on secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide and vasopressin in man. Acta Endocrinol 118:51–58Google Scholar
  25. Kanstrup IL, Hoilund-Carlsen PF, Damkjaer Nielsen M, Marving J, Gadsboll N (1989) Atrial natriuretic factor: comparability of venous and arterial plasma measurements in man at rest and during exercise. Clin Sci 77:319–322Google Scholar
  26. Lew RA, Baertschi AJ (1988) Mechanisms of hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic factor release from rat hearts. Am J Physiol 255:H147-H156Google Scholar
  27. Lijnen P, Hespel P, M'Buyamba-Kabangu JR, Goris M, Lysens R, Vanden Eynde E, Fagard R, Amery A (1987) Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and cyclic nucleotide levels before and after a marathon. J Appl Physiol 63:1180–1184Google Scholar
  28. Maassen N, Schmidt W (1989) Osmolality and fluid shifts during exercise under acute hypoxia. Abstracts of the 6th International Hypoxia Symposium, February 21–25, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada, Available from McMaster University, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  29. Maassen N, Busse MW, Gernhuber J (1988) Fluid and electrolyte shifts during exercise in a glycogen depleted situation. Pflügers Arch 411 [Suppl 1]:R17Google Scholar
  30. McKenzie MC, Tanaka I, Inagami T, Misono KS, Klein RM (1986) Alterations in atrial and plasma atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) content during development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in the rat. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 181:459–463Google Scholar
  31. Milledge JS, Catley DM (1982) Renin, aldosterone, and converting enzyme during exercise and acute hypoxia in humans. J Appl Physiol 52:320–323Google Scholar
  32. Novosadova J (1977) The changes in hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma volume and proteins during and after different types of exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 36:223–230Google Scholar
  33. Perrault H, Cantin M, Thibault G, Brisson GR, Brisson G, Beland M (1989) Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide during brief upright and supine exercise in humans. J Appl Physiol 66:2159–2167Google Scholar
  34. Poortmans JR (1984) Exercise and renal function. Sports Med 1:125–153Google Scholar
  35. Raff H, Ball DL, Goodfriend TL (1989) Adrenal glomerulosa cells are oxygen sensitive: low PO2 inhibits aldosteronogenesis in vitro. Abstracts of the 6th International Hypoxia Symposium, February 21–25, Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. Available from McMaster University, HamiltonGoogle Scholar
  36. Raine AEG, Firth JG, Ledingham JGG (1989) Renal actions of atrial natriuretic factor. Clin Sci 79:1–8Google Scholar
  37. Schmidt W, Maassen N, Trost F, Böning D (1988) Training induced effects on blood volume, erythrocyte turnover and haemoglobin oxygen binding properties. Eur J Appl Physiol 57:490–498Google Scholar
  38. Schmidt W, Maassen N, Tegtbur U, Braumann KM (1989) Changes in plasma volume and red cell formation after a marathon competition. Eur J Appl Physiol 58:453–458Google Scholar
  39. Somers VK, Anderson JV, Conway J, Sleight P, Bloom SR (1986) Atrial natriuretic peptide is released by dynamic exercise in man. Horm Metab Res 18:871–872Google Scholar
  40. Sudhir K, Woods RL, Jennings GL, Nelson LA, Laufer E, Korner PI (1988) Exaggerated atrial natriuretic peptide release during acute exercise in essential hypertension. J Hum Hypertens 1:299–304Google Scholar
  41. Tanaka H, Shindo M, Gutkowska J, Kinoshita A, Urata H, Ikeda M, Arakawa K (1986) Effect of acute exercise on plasma immunoreactive atrial natriuretic factor. Life Sci 39:1685–1693Google Scholar
  42. Tunny TJ, van Gelder J, Gordon RD, Klemm SA, Hamlet SM, Finn WL, Carney GM, Brand-Maher C (1989) Effects of altitude on atrial natriuretic peptide: the Bicentennial Mount Everest Expedition. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 16:287–291Google Scholar
  43. Verho M, Färber G, Kirsten R, Nelson K (1989) Effects of penbutolol on plasma atrial natriuretic hormone levels before and after exercise: a double-blind comparison against placebo. Pharmatherapeutica 5:320–328Google Scholar
  44. Winer BJ (1971) Statistical principles in experimental design. McGraw, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhu JL, Leadley RJ, Geer PG, Wang BC, Goetz KL (1990) Norepinephrine-induced atriopeptin release in conscious dogs is mediated by alterations in atrial pressure. Life Sci 46:139–145Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Schmidt
    • 1
  • G. Brabant
    • 2
  • C. Kröger
    • 2
  • S. Strauch
    • 1
  • A. Hilgendorf
    • 1
  1. 1.Abteilung für Sport- und ArbeitsphysiologieMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannover 61Germany
  2. 2.Abteilung für klinische EndokrinologieMedizinische Hochschule HannoverHannover 61Germany

Personalised recommendations