Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 198–209 | Cite as

Visual evoked potentials in the forebrain of the pigeon

  • Denis M. Parker
  • Juan D. Delius
Article

Summary

The telencephalon of anaesthetized pigeons was systematically explored for flash evoked potentials. A short latency projection to the hyper striatum was confirmed. A second short latency projection which appears to have a major focus in the medial sector of the neostriatum caudale and a more diffuse representation in the remainder of this structure was also found. Longer latency responses were found in a band of tissue surrounding the ectostriatum although the latency of these potentials was too short to be compatible with their origin in a projection from the thalamic nucleus rotundus. The core of the ectostriatum was not responsive under the conditions of the present study. A previously reported projection to the avian archistriatum was not confirmed and evidence is presented that supposed evoked potentials in this region of the brain were confused with volume conducted electroretinograms. All forebrain evoked potentials were attenuated by repetition rates above 1 hz. The origin of these projections is discussed in conjunction with evoked potentials recorded at lower levels of the pigeon's visual system under the same conditions and in the light of available anatomical and electrophysiological evidence. It is concluded that the information about visual projections to the avian forebrain is as yet too incomplete to be useful as evidence for presumptive avian-mammalian forebrain homologies.

Key words

Visual system Evoked potentials Pigeon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamo, N.J., King, R.L.: Evoked responses in the chicken telencephalon to auditory visual and tactile stimulation. Exp. Neurol. 17, 498–504 (1967).Google Scholar
  2. Baker-Cohen, K.F.: Comparative enzyme-histochemical observations on sub-mammalian brains. Ergebn. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 40, 1–70 (1968).Google Scholar
  3. Bremer, F., Dow, R.S., Moruzzi, G.: Physiological analysis of the general cortex in reptiles and birds. J. Neurophysiol. 2, 473–499 (1939).Google Scholar
  4. Chard, R., Gundlach, R.H.: The structure of the eye in the homing pigeon. J. comp. Psychol. 25, 249–272 (1938).Google Scholar
  5. Cowan, W.M., Adamson, L., Powell, T.P.S.: An experimental study of the avian visual system. J. Anat. (Lond.) 95, 545–563 (1961).Google Scholar
  6. Crampton, G.H., Boggs, N.: Latencies of the E.R.G. and optic tectum evoked potentials in the chicken. Amer. J. Physiol. 196, 1067–1075 (1959).Google Scholar
  7. Delius, J.D., Bennetto, K.: Cutaneous sensory projections in the avian forebrain and thalamus. Brain Res. (in press) (1972).Google Scholar
  8. Fox, C.A., Hillman, D.E., Siegesmund, K.A., Sether, L.A.: The primate globus pallidus and its feline and avian homologue: a golgi and electron microscopic study. In: R. Hassler and H. Stephan, Evolution of the Forebrain. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme 1966.Google Scholar
  9. Galifret, Y.: Le systeme visuelle du pigeon. Ph. D. thesis, Université de Paris, 1966.Google Scholar
  10. Haefelfinger, H.R.: Beiträge zur vergleichenden Ontogenese des Vorderhirns bei Vögeln. Basel: Helbing and Lichtenhahn 1958.Google Scholar
  11. Hamdi, F.A., Whiteridge, D.: The representation of the retina on the optic tectum of the pigeon. Quart. J. exp. Physiol. 39, 111–119 (1954).Google Scholar
  12. Harman, L.A., Phillips, R.E.: Responses in the avian midbrain thalamus and forebrain evoked by click stimuli. Exp. Neurol. 18, 276–286 (1967).Google Scholar
  13. Jones, A.W., Levi-Montalcini, R.: Patterns of differentiation of the nerve centres and fibre tracts in the avian cerebral hemispheres. Arch. ital. Biol. 96, 231–284 (1958).Google Scholar
  14. Kallen, B.: Embryogenesis of brain nuclei in the chick telencephalon. Ergebn. Anat. Entwickl.-Gesch. 36, 62–82 (1962).Google Scholar
  15. Kappers, C.U.A., Huber, G.C., Crosby, E.C.: The comparative anatomy of the nervous system of vertebrates. New York: Macmillan 1936.Google Scholar
  16. Karten, H.J: The ascending auditory pathways in the pigeon. Telencephalic projections of the nucleus ovoidalis thalami. Brain. Res. 11, 134–153 (1969a).Google Scholar
  17. —: The organization of the avian telencephalon and some speculations on the phylogeny of the amniote telencephalon. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 167, 164–179 (1969b).Google Scholar
  18. —, Hodos, W.: A Stereotaxic Atlas of the Brain of the Pigeon (Columbia livia). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 1967.Google Scholar
  19. —: Telencephalic projections of the nucleus rotundus in the pigeon (Columba livia). J. comp. Neurol. 140, 35–52 (1970).Google Scholar
  20. —, Nauta, W.J.H.: Organisation of retinothalamic projections in the pigeon and owl. Anat. Rec. 160, 373 (1968).Google Scholar
  21. —, Revzin, A.M.: The afferent connections of the nucleus rotundus in the pigeon. Brain Res. 2, 368–377 (1966).Google Scholar
  22. Kimberly, R.P., Holden, A.L., Bamborough, P.: Response characteristics of pigeon forebrain cells to visual stimulation. Vision Res. 11, 475–478 (1971).Google Scholar
  23. Kondo, T.: Über die Nervenfasern, die beim Huhn aus dem Epistriatum entspringen oder in ihm endigen. Okayama I.Z. 45, 124–132 (1933a).Google Scholar
  24. —: Über die zentrifugalen Fasern, die beim Huhn aus der vorderen Gegend der Großhirnhemisphäre entspringen. Okayama I.Z. 45, 133–143 (1933b).Google Scholar
  25. —: Über das Mesostriatum beim Huhn. Okayama I.Z. 45, 785–796 (1933c).Google Scholar
  26. —: Über die Verbindung des Sehhügels mit dem Streifenhügel beim Huhn. Okayama I.Z. 45, 797–809 (1933d).Google Scholar
  27. Kuhlenbeck, H.: The ontogenetic development and phylogenetic significance of the cortex telencephali in the chick. J. comp. Neurol. 69, 273–295 (1938).Google Scholar
  28. Phillips, R.E.: Evoked potential study of connections of avian archistriatum and caudal neostriatum. J. comp. Neurol. 127, 89–99 (1966).Google Scholar
  29. Powell, T.P.S., Cowan, W.M.: The thalamic projection upon the telencephalon in the pigeon (Columbia livia). J.Anat. (Lond.) 95, 78–109 (1961).Google Scholar
  30. Revzin, A.M.: Flash evoked unit responses in the diencephalon of the pigeon. Fed. Proc. 25, 1163 (1966).Google Scholar
  31. —: A specific visual projection area in the hyperstriatum of the pigeon (Columba livia). Brain Res. 15, 246–249 (1969).Google Scholar
  32. —: Some characteristics of wide-field units in the brain of the pigeon. Brain Behav. Evol. 3, 195–204 (1970).Google Scholar
  33. —, Karten, H.J.: Rostral projections of the optic tectum and the nucleus rotundus in the pigeon. Brain Res. 3, 264–276 (1967).Google Scholar
  34. Rougeul, A.: Exploration oscillographique de la voie visuelle du pigeon. Paris: Foulon 1957.Google Scholar
  35. Stingelin, W.: Vergleichende morphologische Untersuchungen am Vorderhirn der Vögel auf cytologischer und cytoarchitektonischer Grundlage. Basel: Helbing and Lichtenhahn 1958.Google Scholar
  36. Wolbarsht, M.J., Stopp, P.E., Godson, J.E.: Opthalmoscopy of pigeons using transillumination. Experientia (Basel) 20, 466 (1964).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denis M. Parker
    • 1
  • Juan D. Delius
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyDurhamEngland

Personalised recommendations