The Journal of Membrane Biology

, Volume 143, Issue 3, pp 207–217 | Cite as

Chloride transport activation by plasma osmolarity during rapid adaptation to high salinity of Fundulus heteroclitus

  • J. A. Zadunaisky
  • S. Cardona
  • L. Au
  • D. M. Roberts
  • E. Fisher
  • B. Lowenstein
  • E. J. CragoeJr.
  • K. R. Spring
Articles

Abstract

Transition from low salt water to sea water of the euryhaline fish, Fundulus heteroclitus, involves a rapid signal that induces salt secretion by the gill chloride cells. An increase of 65 mOsm in plasma osmolarity was found during the transition. The isolated, chloridecell-rich opercular epithelium of sea-water-adapted Fundulus exposed to 50 mOsm mannitol on the basolateral side showed a 100% increase in chloride secretion, which was inhibited by bumetanide 10−4m and 10−4m DPC (N-Phenylanthranilic acid). No effect of these drugs was found on apical side exposure. A Na+/H+ exchanger, demonstrated by NH4Cl exposure, was inhibited by amiloride and its analogues and stimulated by IBMX, phorbol esters, and epithelial growth factor (EGF). Inhibition of the Na+/H+ exchanger blocks the chloride secretion increase due to basolateral hypertonicity. A Cl/HCO3exchanger was also found in the chloride cells, inhibited by 10−4m DIDS but not involved in the hyperosmotic response. Ca2+ concentration in the medium was critical for the stimulation of Cl secretion to occur. Chloride cell volume shrinks in response to hypertonicity of the basolateral side in sea-water-adapted operculi; no effect was found on the apical side. Freshwater-adapted fish chloride cells show increased water permeability of the apical side. It is concluded that the rapid signal for adaptation to higher salinities is an increased tonicity of the plasma that induces chloride cell shrinkage, increased chloride secretion with activation of the Na+K+2Cl cotransporter, the Na+/H+ exchanger and opening of Cl channels.

Key words

Gill chloride cell Cl secretion Fundulus heteroclitus Cell volume regulation Na+/H+ exchanger Cl/HCO3exchanger 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. A. Zadunaisky
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • S. Cardona
    • 1
    • 2
  • L. Au
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. M. Roberts
    • 2
  • E. Fisher
    • 1
    • 2
  • B. Lowenstein
    • 2
  • E. J. CragoeJr.
  • K. R. Spring
    • 3
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and Biophysics and of OphthalmologyNew York University Medical CenterNew York
  2. 2.Mount Desert Island Biological LaboratorySalsbury Cove
  3. 3.Laboratory of Kidney and Electrolyte, Metabolism, National Institutes of HealthBethesda

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