Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 78–99 | Cite as

The pathways responsible for excitation and inhibition of fastigial neurones

  • J. C. Eccles
  • N. H. Sabah
  • H. Táboříková
Article

Summary

A detailed study of the latencies of the excitatory responses of fastigial cells disclosed an unexpected anomaly. Except for infrequent small responses the latency was many milliseconds longer than would be expected for excitation by axon collaterals of the fast spino-cerebellar pathways. There were many examples in which inhibition had an earlier onset than excitation; nevertheless the inhibitory latency was not so brief as to preclude its production by Purkyně cell discharge in response to the fast spino-cerebellar pathways. Histograms have been constructed for the latencies of the excitation and inhibition evoked in fastigial cells by four kinds of inputs: nerve volleys from forelimb and hindlimb; pad taps from forelimb and hindlimb.

Electrical stimulation of the lateral reticular nucleus on the same side very effectively excited fastigial cells, usually with the latency expected for monosynaptic excitation. It was therefore postulated that with forelimb and hindlimb stimulation the dominant mode of excitation of fastigial cells was by excitatory collaterals from the spino-reticulo-cerebellar pathway. Stimulation of the contralateral inferior olive also was effective in evoking a short latency excitation of fastigial cells. It was therefore assumed that collaterals from the spino-olivo-cerebellar pathway provide an additional excitatory input to fastigial cells.

A diagram was constructed in space-time coordinates graphically expressing the timing of the various excitatory and inhibitory pathways by which a hindlimb nerve stimulus acts on fastigial cells. An interesting design feature is thereby disclosed, namely that the dominant excitatory input to the fastigial cells via the slower spino-cerebellar paths is virtually synchronous with the inhibitory input from Purkyně cells discharging in response to the fast spino-cerebellar input. It is pointed out that the temporal pattern gives optimal conditions for the computer-like operation of the fastigial nucleus.

Key words

Cerebellum Fastigial nucleus Lateral reticular nucleus Inferior olive Neuronal computation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, G.I., Sabah, N.H., Toyama, K.: Synaptic actions of peripheral nerve impulses upon Deiters neurones via the climbing fibre afferents. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 226, 311–333 (1972a)Google Scholar
  2. Allen, G.I., Sabah, N.H., Toyama, K.: Synaptic actions of peripheral nerve impulses upon Deiters neurones via the mossy fibre afferents. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 226, 335–351 (1972b)Google Scholar
  3. Arduini, A., Pompiano, O.: Microelectrode analysis of units of the rostral portion of the nucleus fastigii. Arch. ital. Biol. 95, 56–70 (1957)Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, D.M., Eccles, J.C., Harvey, R.J., Matthews, P.B.C.: Responses in the dorsal accessory olive of the cat to stimulation of hind limb afferents. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 194, 125–145 (1968)Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong, D.M., Harvey, K.J.: Responses of a spino-olivo-cerebellar pathway in the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 194, 147–168 (1968)Google Scholar
  6. Azzena, G.B., Ohno, T.: Influence of spino-reticulo-cerebellar pathway on Purkyně cells of paramedian lobule. Exp. Brain Res. 17, 63–74 (1973)Google Scholar
  7. Berman, A.L.: The Brain Stem of the Cat. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press 1968Google Scholar
  8. Brock, L.G., Coombs, J.S., Eccles, J.C.: Intracellular recording from antidromically activated motoneurones. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 122, 429–461 (1953)Google Scholar
  9. Brodal, A.: Experimentelle Untersuchungen über die olivocerebellare Lokalisation. Z. ges. Neurol. Psychiat. 169, 1–153 (1940)Google Scholar
  10. Brodal, A. Neurological Anatomy. In relation to clinical medicine. Oxford-London: University Press 1969Google Scholar
  11. Eager, R.P.: Efferent cortico-nuclear pathways in the cerebellum of the cat. J. comp. Neurol. 120, 81–103 (1963)Google Scholar
  12. Eccles, J.C., Faber, D.S., Murphy, J.T., Sabah, N.H., Táboříková, H.: Afferent volleys in limb nerves influencing impulse discharges in cerebellar cortex. I. In mossy fibers and granule cells. Exp. Brain Res. 13, 15–35 (1971a)Google Scholar
  13. Eccles, J.C., Faber, D.S., Murphy, J.T., Sabah, N.H., Táboříková, H.: Afferent volleys in limb nerves influencing impulse discharges in cerebellar cortex. II. In Purkyně cells. Exp. Brain Res. 13, 36–53 (1971b)Google Scholar
  14. Eccles, J.C., Faber, D.S., Murphy, J.T., Sabah, N.H., Táboříková, H.: Investigations on integration of mossy fiber inputs to Purkyně cells in the anterior lobe. Exp. Brain Res. 13, 54–77 (1971c)Google Scholar
  15. Eccles, J.C., Ito, M., Szentágothai, J.: The Cerebellum as a Neuronal Machine. 335 pp. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer 1967Google Scholar
  16. Eccles, J.C., Provini, L., Strata, P., Táboříková, H.: Analysis of electrical potentials evoked in the cerebellar anterior lobe by stimulation of hindlimb and forelimb nerves. Exp. Brain Res. 6, 171–194 (1968)Google Scholar
  17. Eccles, J.C., Rantucci, T., Sabah, N.H., Táboříková, H.: Somatotopic studies on cerebellar fastigial cells. Exp. Brain Res. 19, 100–118 (1974)Google Scholar
  18. Eccles, J.C., Sabah, N.H., Schmidt, R.F., Táboříková, H.: Cutaneous mechanoreceptors influencing impulse discharges in cerebellar cortex. I. In mossy fibers. Exp. Brain Res. 15, 245–260 (1972a)Google Scholar
  19. Eccles, J.C.: Cutaneous mechanoreceptors influencing impulse discharges in cerebellar cortex. II. In Purkyně cells by mossy fiber input. Exp. Brain Res. 15, 261–277 (1972b)Google Scholar
  20. Eccles, J.C.: Cutaneous mechanoreceptors influencing impulse discharges in cerebellar cortex. III. In Purkyně cells by climbing fiber input. Exp. Brain Res. 15, 484–497 (1972c)Google Scholar
  21. Eccles, J.C.: Integration by Purkyně cells of mossy and climbing fiber inputs from cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Exp. Brain Res. 15, 498–520 (1972d)Google Scholar
  22. Eccles, J.C., Táboříková, H.: Responses evoked in neurones of the fastigial nucleus by cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Brain Res. 35, 523–527 (1971)Google Scholar
  23. Eccles, J.C., Táboříková, H.: Excitatory and inhibitory responses of neurones of the cerebellar fastigial nucleus. Exp. Brain Res. 19, 61–77 (1974)Google Scholar
  24. Grant, G.: Spinal course and somatotopically localized termination of the spinocerebellar tracts. An experimental study in the cat. Acta physiol. scand. 56, Suppl. 193, 5–42 (1962)Google Scholar
  25. Grant, G., Oscarsson, O., Rosén, I.: Functional organization of the spinoreticulocerebellar path with identification of its spinal component. Exp. Brain Res. 1, 306–319 (1966)Google Scholar
  26. Ito, M., Yoshida, M., Obata, K., Kawai, N., Udo, M.: Inhibitory control on intracerebellar nuclei by the Purkinje cell axons. Exp. Brain Res. 10, 64–80 (1970)Google Scholar
  27. Jansen, J., Brodal, A.: Experimental studies on the intrinsic fibers of the cerebellum. II. The cortico-nuclear projection. J. comp. Neurol. 73, 267–321 (1940)Google Scholar
  28. Latham, A., Paul, D.H.: Responses in the cerebellum of the unanesthetized (decerebrate) cat evoked by stimulating low threshold cutaneous afferent nerve fibres. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 197, 77P-78P (1968)Google Scholar
  29. Matsushita, M., Ikeda, M.: Olivary projections to the cerebellar nuclei in the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 10, 488–500 (1970a)Google Scholar
  30. Matsushita, M., Ikeda, M.: Spinal projections to the cerebellar nuclei in the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 10, 501–511 (1970b)Google Scholar
  31. Matsushita, M., Ikeda, M., Iwahori, N.: Structural organization of the fastigial nucleus. II. Afferent fiber systems. Brain Res. 25, 611–624 (1971)Google Scholar
  32. Murphy, J.T., Sabah, N.H.: Cerebellar Purkinje cell responses to afferent inputs. II. Mossy fiber activation. Brain Res. 25, 469–482 (1971)Google Scholar
  33. Oscarsson, O.: Functional organization of spinocerebellar paths. In: A. Iggo (Ed.). Handbook of Sensory Physiology, Vol. II, Somatosensory System. Berlin: Springer pp. 339–380 (1973)Google Scholar
  34. Oscarsson, O., Rosén, I.: Response characteristics of reticulocerebellar neurones activated from spinal afferents. Exp. Brain Res. 1, 320–328 (1966)Google Scholar
  35. Rosén, I., Scheid, P.: Patterns of afferent input to the lateral reticular nucleus of the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 18, 242–255 (1973a)Google Scholar
  36. Rosén, I., Scheid, P.: Responses to nerve stimulation in the bilateral ventral flexor reflex tract (bVFRT) of the cat. Exp. Brain Res. 18, 256–267 (1973b)Google Scholar
  37. Rosén, I., Scheid, P.: Responses in the spino-reticulo-cerebellar pathway to stimulation of cutaneous mechanoreceptors. Exp. Brain Res. 18, 268–277 (1973c)Google Scholar
  38. Sasaki, K., Strata, P.: Responses evoked in the cerebellar cortex by stimulating mossy fiber pathways to the cerebellum. Exp. Brain Res. 3, 95–110 (1967)Google Scholar
  39. Walberg, F., Jansen, J.: Cerebellar corticonuclear projection studied experimentally with silver impregnation method. J. Hirnforsch. 6, 338–354 (1964)Google Scholar
  40. Walberg, F., Pompeiano, O.: Fastigiofugal fibers to the lateral reticular nucleus: an experimental study. Exp. Neurol. 2, 40–53 (1960)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1974

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. C. Eccles
    • 1
  • N. H. Sabah
    • 1
  • H. Táboříková
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Physiology and BiophysicsSchool of Medicine, State University of New York at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

Personalised recommendations