Advertisement

Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 92, Issue 1, pp 139–151 | Cite as

Motor cortical activity in a memorized delay task

  • Nikolaos Smyrnis
  • Masato Taira
  • James Ashe
  • Apostolos P. Georgopoulos
Article

Summary

Two rhesus monkeys were trained to move a handle on a two-dimensional (2D) working surface in directions specified by a light at the plane. They first captured with the handle a light on the center of the plane and then moved the handle in the direction indicated by a peripheral light (cue signal). The signal to move (go signal) was given by turning off the center light. The following tasks were used: (a) In the non-delay task the peripheral light was turned on at the same time as the center light went off. (b) In the memorized delay task the peripheral light stayed on for 300 ms and the center light was turned off 450–750 ms later. Finally, (c) in the non-memorized delay task the peripheral light stayed on continuously whereas the center light went off 750–1050 ms after the peripheral light came on. Recordings in the arm area of the motor cortex (N= 171 cells) showed changes in single cell activity in all tasks. In both delay tasks, the neuronal population vector calculated every 20 ms after the onset of the peripheral light pointed in the direction of the upcoming movement, which was instructed by the cue light. Moreover, the strength of the population signal showed an initial peak shortly after the cue onset in both the memorized and non-memorized delay tasks but it maintained a higher level during the memorized delay period, as compared to the non-memorized task. These results indicate that the motor cortex is involved in encoding and holding in memory directional information concerning a visually cued arm movement and that these processes can be visualized using neuronal population vector analysis.

Key words

Motor cortex Visuomotor memory Arm movement Movement direction Monkey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander GE, Crutcher MD (1990) Preparation for movement: neural representation of intended direction in three motor areas of the monkey. J Neurophysiol 64: 133–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bruce CJ, Goldberg ME (1985) Primate frontal eye field. I. Single neurons discharging before saccades. J Neurophysiol 53: 603–635Google Scholar
  3. Chen D-F, Hyland B, Maier V, Palmeri A, Wiesendanger M (1991) Comparison of neural activity in the supplementary motor area and in the primary motor cortex in monkeys. Somatosensory Motor Res 8: 27–44Google Scholar
  4. Clark MC, Marcario JK, Kettner RE (1991) Comparison of neuronal responses in the precentral cortex with EMG activity during an arm-movement sequence delay task. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17: 307Google Scholar
  5. Crammond DJ, Kalaska JF (1991) Preparatory activity in premotor cortex during an instructed-delay period: relation to contra- and ipsilateral arm movements. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17: 308Google Scholar
  6. Evarts EV (1981) Role of the motor cortex in voluntary movements in primates. In: Handbook of physiology. The nervous system, II. American Physiological Society, Bethesda, MD, pp 1083–1120Google Scholar
  7. Funahashi S, Bruce CJ, Goldman-Rakic PS (1989) Mnemonic coding of visual space in the monkey's dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. J Neurophysiol 61: 331–349Google Scholar
  8. Georgopoulos AP (1991) Higher order motor control. Ann Rev Neurosci 14: 361–377Google Scholar
  9. Georgopoulos AP, Massey JT (1987) Cognitive spatial-motor processes. 1. The making of movements at various angles from a stimulus direction. Exp Brain Res 65: 361–370Google Scholar
  10. Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Massey JT (1981) Spatial trajectories and reaction times of aimed movements: effects of practice, uncertainty, and change in target location. J Neurophysiol 46: 725–743Google Scholar
  11. Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Caminiti R, Massey JT (1982) On the relations between the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and cell discharge in primate motor cortex. J Neurosci 2: 1527–1537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Georgopoulos AP, Caminiti R, Kalaska JF, Massey JT (1983) Spatial coding of movement: A hypothesis concerning the coding of movement direction by motor cortical populations. Exp Brain Res Suppl 7: 327–336Google Scholar
  13. Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Crutcher MD, Caminiti R, Massey JT (1984) The representation of movement direction in the motor cortex: Single cell and population studies. In: Edelman GM, Cowan WM, Gall WE (eds) Dynamic aspects of neocortical function. Wiley, New York, pp 501–524Google Scholar
  14. Georgopoulos AP, Schwartz AB, Kettner RE (1986) Neuronal population coding of movement direction. Science 233: 1416–1419PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Georgopoulos AP, Kettner RE, Schwartz AB (1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. II. Coding of the direction of movement by a neuronal population. J Neurosci 8: 2928–2937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Georgopoulos AP, Crutcher MD, Schwartz AB (1989a) Cognitive spatial motor processes. 3. Motor cortical prediction of movement direction during an instructed delay period. Exp Brain Res 75: 183–194Google Scholar
  17. Georgopoulos AP, Lurito JT, Petrides M, Schwartz AB, Massey JT (1989b) Mental rotation of the neuronal population vector. Science 243: 234–236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghez C, Hening W, Favilla M (1990) Parallel interacting channels in the initiation and specification of motor response features. Attention & Performance XIII: 265–293Google Scholar
  19. Gnadt JW, Andersen RA (1988) Memory related motor planning activity in posterior parietal cortex of macaque. Exp Brain Res 70: 216–220Google Scholar
  20. Hikosaka O, Wurtz RH (1983) Visual and oculomotor functions of monkey substantia nigra pars reticulata. III. Memory-contingent visual and saccade responses. J Neurophysiol 49: 1268–1284Google Scholar
  21. Hocherman S, Wise SP (1991) Effects of hand movement path on motor cortical activity in awake, behaving rhesus monkeys. Exp Brain Res 83: 285–302Google Scholar
  22. Kettner RE, Marcario JK, Clark MC (1991) Population coding of movement direction in precentral cortex during a movement-sequence delay task. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17: 307Google Scholar
  23. Lecas J-C, Requin J, Anger C, Vitton N (1986) Changes in neuronal activity of the monkey precentral cortex during preparation for movement. J Neurophysiol 56: 1680–1702Google Scholar
  24. Lurito JL, Georgakopoulos T, Georgopoulos AP (1991) Cognitive spatial-motor processes. 7. The making of movements at an angle from a stimulus direction: studies of motor cortical activity at the single cell and population levels. Exp Brain Res 87: 562–580PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Marcario JK, Kettner RE, Clark MC (1991) Simultaneously recorded activity in motor and premotor cortices of monkey during arm-movement sequences. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17: 307Google Scholar
  26. Mardia KV (1972) Statistics of directional data. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Mauritz K-H, Wise SP (1986) Premotor cortex of the rhesus monkey: neuronal activity in anticipation of predictable environmental events. Exp Brain Res 61: 229–244Google Scholar
  28. Moore BR (1980) A modification of the Rayleigh test for vector data. Biometrika 67: 175–180Google Scholar
  29. Mountcastle VB, Reitboeck HJ, Poggio GF, Steinmetz MA (1991) Adaptation of the Reitboeck method of multiple microelectrode recording to the neocortex of the waking monkey. J Neurosci Methods 36: 77–84Google Scholar
  30. Riehle A, Requin J (1989) Monkey primary motor and premotor cortex: single-cell activity related to prior information about direction and extent of an intended movement. J Neurophysiol 61: 534–549Google Scholar
  31. Schwartz AB, Kettner RE, Georgopoulos AP (1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. I. Relations between single cell discharge and direction of movement. J Neurosci 8: 2913–2927Google Scholar
  32. Smyrnis N, Ashe J, Taira M, Lurito JT, Georgopoulos AP (1991) Motor cortical cell activity in a memorized delay task. Soc Neurosci Abstr 17: 308Google Scholar
  33. Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1980) Statistical methods, 7th edn. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IowaGoogle Scholar
  34. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1969) Biometry. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  35. Mushiake H, Inase M, Tanji J (1991) Neuronal activity in the primate premotor, supplementary, and precentral motor cortex during visually guided and internally determined sequential movements. J Neurophysiol 66: 705–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Winer BJ (1971) Statistical principles in experimental design, 2nd edition. Mc-Graw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nikolaos Smyrnis
    • 1
    • 2
  • Masato Taira
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Ashe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Apostolos P. Georgopoulos
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Brain Sciences Center, Veterans Affairs Medical CenterMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Departments of Physiology and NeurologyUniversity of Minnesota Medical SchoolMinneapolisUSA

Personalised recommendations