Experimental Brain Research

, Volume 78, Issue 3, pp 588–596 | Cite as

Role of the sensorimotor cortex in postural adjustments accompanying a conditioned paw lift in the standing cat

  • E. V. Birjukova
  • M. Dufossé
  • A. A. Frolov
  • M. E. Ioffé
  • J. Massion
Article

Summary

The role of the sensorimotor cortex in the postural adjustments associated with conditioned paw lifting movements was investigated in the cat. Cats were trained to stand quietly on four strain gauge equipped platforms and to perform a lift-off movement with one forelimb when a conditioned tone was presented. The parameters recorded were the vertical forces exerted by the paws on each platform, the lateral and antero-posterior displacements of rods implanted on the T2, T12, L5 vertebrae as well as their rotation, and the EMG of triceps and biceps of both forelimbs. Before lesion, the postural adjustment consisted of a “nondiagonal” pattern where the CG was displaced laterally inside the triangle formed by the three remaining supporting limbs. Here a lateral bending of the thoracic column toward the supporting forelimb could be observed. The associated EMG pattern consisted of an early activation of the triceps lateral head in the moving limb which was probably responsible for the body displacement toward the opposite side, and a late biceps activation associated with the lift. In the supporting forelimb, a coactivation of the biceps and triceps was usually present. After contralateral sensorimotor lesion, the conditioned lifting movements were lost for 4–15 days after the lesion, before being subsequently recovered. The same lateral CG displacement and bending of the back was seen after lesion as before, which indicates that the goal of postural adjustment was preserved. However, the means of reaching it were modified. In most of the intact animals, the CG displacement was achieved in one step, whereas in the animals with lesions, the displacement was made either according to a slow ramp mode or in a discontinuous manner involving several steps. The mechanisms responsible for this disturbance are discussed.

Key words

Motor cortex Conditioned movement Posture Balance control Cat 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alstermark B, Sasaki S (1983) Electromyographic activity in fast and slow elbow extensors during a visually guided forelimb movement in cats. Brain Res 259: 155–158Google Scholar
  2. Amassian VE, Ross R, Wertenbaker C, Weiner H (1972) Cerebellothalamocortical interrelations in contact placing and other movements in cats. In Frigyesi T, Rinvik E, Yahr MD (eds) Corticothalamic projections and sensorimotor activities. Raven Press, New York, pp 395–444Google Scholar
  3. Bard P (1933) Studies on the cerebral cortex. I. Localized control of placing and hopping reactions in the cat and their normal management by small cortical remnants. Arch Neurol Psychiat 30: 40–74Google Scholar
  4. Birjukova EV, Dufosse M, Frolov AA, Ioffe ME, Massion J (1988) Biomechanical model of quadruped with flexible spine. Proc 7th Congr ISEKGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks VB (1985) How are “Move” and “Hold” programs matched? In: Bloedel JR, Dichgans J, Precht W (eds) Cerebellar functions. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  6. Burlachkova NI, Ioffé ME (1979) The analysis of the postural adjustment accompanying a local movement. Agressologie 20B: 141–142Google Scholar
  7. Collates TC, Edgerton VR, Smith JL, Botterman BR (1977) Contractile properties and fiber type composition of flexors and extensors of elbow joint in cat: implications for motor control. J Neurophysiol 49: 1292–1300Google Scholar
  8. Coulmance M, Gahery Y, Massion J, Swett JE (1989) The placing reaction in the standing cat: a model for the study of posture and movement. Exp Brain Res 37: 365–381Google Scholar
  9. Di Fabio RP (1983) Postural supporting mechanisms during spontaneous single limb movement in the cat. Neurosci Lett 40: 133–138Google Scholar
  10. Dufosse M, Macpherson JM, Massion J (1982) Biomechanical and electromyographical comparison of two postural supporting mechanisms in the cat. Exp Brain Res 45: 38–44Google Scholar
  11. Dufosse M, Macpherson JM, Massion J, Sybirska E (1985) The postural reaction to the drop of a hindlimb support remains unchanged after sensorimotor cortical ablation. Neurosci Lett 55: 297–303Google Scholar
  12. Frolov AA, Birjukova EV, Ioffe ME (1988) On the influence of movement kinematics on the support pressure pattern during postural adjustment of quadrupeds. In: Gurfinkel VS, Ioffé ME, Massion J, Roll J-P (eds) Stance and motion: facts and concepts. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Gahery Y, Ioffé M, Massion J, Polit A (1980) The postural support of movement in cat and dog. Acta Neurobiol Exp 40: 741–756Google Scholar
  14. Ioffé ME (1975) Cortico-spinal mechanisms of instrumental motor reactions. Nauka, Moscow, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. Ioffé ME, Andreyev AE (1969) Inter-extremities coordination in local motor conditioned reactions of dogs. Zh Vysshen Nervnoi Deyat Pavlova 44: 393–403Google Scholar
  16. Ioffé ME, Frolov AA, Gahery Y, Frolov AG, Coulmance M, Davydov VI (1982) Biomechanical study on the mechanisms of postural adjustment accompanying learned or induced limb movements in cats and dogs. Acta Neurobiol Exp 42: 469–482Google Scholar
  17. Ioffé ME, Ivanova NG, Frolov AA, Birjukova EV, Kiseljova NV (1988) On the role of motor cortex in the learned rearrangement on postural coordination. In: Gurfinkel VS, Ioffé ME, Massion J, Roll J-P (eds) Stance and motion: facts and concepts. Plenum Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Massion J (1979) Role of motor cortex in postural adjustments associated with movements. In: Asanuma H, Wilson VJ (eds) Integration in the nervous system. Igaku-Shoin, Tokyo New York, pp 239–260Google Scholar
  19. Massion J, Roll R, Swett JE (1981) Effect of sensorimotor cortical ablation on the placing reaction in the standing cat. Arch ltal Biol 119: 108–124Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. V. Birjukova
    • 2
  • M. Dufossé
    • 1
  • A. A. Frolov
    • 2
  • M. E. Ioffé
    • 2
  • J. Massion
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Neurosciences Fonctionnelles, LNF 3, CNRS, 31Marseille CedexFrance
  2. 2.Institute of Higher Nervous Activities and Neurophysiology, Academy of SciencesMoscowUSSR

Personalised recommendations