Hydrobiologia

, Volume 292, Issue 1, pp 405–413

Planktonic copepods of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay, 1992

  • Jefferson T. Turner
Distributions in the time and space

Abstract

Zooplankton were collected by vertical tows with 102 µm mesh at ten stations in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay in February, March, April, June, August, and October, 1992. This study was part of a larger monitoring program to assess the effects of a major sewage abatement project, and sampling periods were designed around periods of major phytoplankton events such as the winter-spring diatom bloom, the stratified summer flagellate period, and the autumn transition from stratified to mixed waters. There was considerable seasonal variation in total zooplankton abundance, with minimal values in April (1929–11631 animals m−3) during a massive bloom of Phaeocystis pouchetii, and maximum values (67 316–261075 animals m−3) in August. There were no consistent trends of total abundance where any particular station had greater or lesser abundance than others over the entire year. Zooplankton abundance was dominated by copepods (adults + copepodites) and copepod nauplii (30.4–100.0% of total zooplankton, mean= 83.2%). Despite the large seasonal variation in zooplankton and copepod abundance, the copepod assemblage was dominated throughout the entire year by the small copepod Oithona similis, followed by Paracalanus parvus. Other less-abundant copepods present year-round were Pseudocalanus newmani, Temora longicornis, Centropages hamatus, C. typicus, and Calanus finmarchicus. Two species of Acartia were present, primarily in low-salinity waters of Boston Harbor: A. hudsonica during cold periods, and A. tonsa in warm ones. Eurytemora herdmani was also a subdominant in Boston Harbor in October. The potential role of zooplankton grazing in phytoplankton dynamics and bloom cycles in these waters must be considered in view of the overwhelming numerical dominance of the zooplankton by Oithona similis which may feed primarily as a carnivore. Furthermore, it seems unlikely that eutrophication-induced alteration of phytoplankton assemblages could cause significant ‘trophic domino effects’, reducing abundances of Calanus finmarchicus that are forage of endangered right whales seasonally utilizing Cape Cod Bay because C. finmarchicus has long been known to be a relatively unselective grazer, and most importantly, it is a trivial component of total zooplankton or total copepod abundance in these waters.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bautista B. R. P. Harris, P. R. G. Tranter & D. Harbour, 1992. In situ copepod feeding and grazing rates during a spring bloom dominated by Phaeocystis sp. in the English Channel. J. Plankton Res. 14: 691–703.Google Scholar
  2. Bigelow, H. B. & M. Sears, 1939. Studies of the waters of the continental shelf, Cape Cod to Chesapeake Bay. III. A volumetric study of the zooplankton. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. 54: 183–378.Google Scholar
  3. Davies, A. G., I. De Madariaga, B. Bautista, E. Fernandez, D. S. Harbour, P. Serret & P. R. G. Tranter, 1992. The ecology of a coastal Phaeocystis bloom in the north-western English Channel in 1990. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 72: 691–708.Google Scholar
  4. Estep, K. W., J. C. Nejstgaard, H. R. Skjoldal & F. Rey, 1990. Predation by copepods upon natural populations of Phaeocystis pouchetti as a function of the physiological state of the prey. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 67: 235–249.Google Scholar
  5. Fish, C. J., 1936. The biology of Oithona similis in the Gulf of Maine and Bay of Fundy. Biol. Bull. 71: 168–187.Google Scholar
  6. Frost, B. W., 1989. A taxonomy of the marine calanoid copepod genus Pseudocalanus. Can. J. Zool. 67: 525–551.Google Scholar
  7. Huntley, M., 1981. Nonselective, nonsaturated feeding by three calanid copepod species in the Labrador Sea. Limnol. Oceanogr. 26: 831–842.Google Scholar
  8. Jeffries, H. P., 1967. Saturation of estuarine zooplankton by congeneric associates. In G. H. Lauff (ed.), Estuaries. Amer. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Publ. 83, Washington, D.C.: 500–508.Google Scholar
  9. Johnson, J., 1992. Endangered right whales hold key to Boston outfall's future. The Cape Codder, Tuesday April 14, 1992.Google Scholar
  10. Kelly, J. R., C. S. Albro, J. T. Hennessy & D. Shea, 1992a. Water quality monitoring in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays: February–March 1992. Technical Report prepared by Battelle Ocean Sciences for the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority.Google Scholar
  11. Kelly, J. R., C. S. Albro & J. T. Hennessy. 1992b. Water quality monitoring in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays: April–August 1992. Technical Report prepared by Battelle Ocean Sciences for the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority.Google Scholar
  12. Kelly, J. R., C. S. Albro & J. T. Hennessy. 1992c. Water quality monitoring in Massachusetts and Cape Cod Bays: August–November 1992. Technical Report prepared by Battelle Ocean Sciences for the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority.Google Scholar
  13. Lampitt, R. S., 1978. Carnivorous feeding by a small marine copepod. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 1228–1231.Google Scholar
  14. Lampitt, R. S. & J. C. Gamble, 1982. Diet and respiration of the small planktonic marine copepod Oithona nana Mar. Biol. 66: 185–190.Google Scholar
  15. Lebour, M. V., 1922. The food of plankton organisms. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 12: 644–677.Google Scholar
  16. Marshall, S. M., 1924. The food of Calanus finmarchicus during 1923. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 13: 473–479.Google Scholar
  17. Marshall, S. M. & A. P. Orr, 1956. On the biology of Calanus finmarchicus. IX. Feeding and digestion in the younger stages. J. mar. ass. U.K. 35: 587–603.Google Scholar
  18. Marshall, S. M. & A. P. Orr, 1966. Respiration and feeding in some small copepods. J. mar. biol. Ass. U.K. 46: 513–530.Google Scholar
  19. Mayo, C. A. & M. K. Marx, 1990. Surface foraging behaviour of the North Atlantic right whale, Eubalaena glacialis, and associated zooplankton characteristics. Can. J. Zool. 68: 2214–2220.Google Scholar
  20. McLaughlin, J., 1992. Higher red tide risk cited in Cape report on outfall tunnel. The Boston Globe, Wednesday, April 15, 1992.Google Scholar
  21. Paffenhöfer, G.-A., 1993. On the ecology of marine cyclopoid copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda). J. Plankton Res. 15: 37–55.Google Scholar
  22. Pivorunas, A. 1979. The feeding mechanisms of baleen whales. Am. Scient. 67: 432–440.Google Scholar
  23. Poulet, S. A., 1978. Comparison between five coexisting species of marine copepods feeding on naturally occurring particulate matter. Limnol. Oceanogr. 23: 1126–1143.Google Scholar
  24. Sherman, K., J. R. Green, J. R. Goulet & L. Ejsmont, 1983. Coherence of zooplankton of a large northwest Atlantic ecosystem. Fish. Bull. USA 81: 855–862.Google Scholar
  25. Smayda, T. J., 1990. Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidence for a global epidemic,. In E. Granéli, B. Sundstrom, L. Edler & D. M. Anderson (eds), Toxic Marine Phytoplankton. Elsevier, Amsterdam: 29–40.Google Scholar
  26. Sullivan, B. K. & L. T. McManus, 1986. Factors controlling seasonal succession of the copepods Acartia hudsonica and A. tonsa in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island: temperature and resting egg production. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 28: 121–128.Google Scholar
  27. Tester, P. A. & J. T. Turner, 1991. Why is Acartia tonsa restricted to estuarine habitats? Proc. Fourth Internat. Conf. Copepoda, Karuizawa, Japan. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan, Spec. Vol.: 603–611.Google Scholar
  28. Toner, R. C., 1984. Zooplankton of western Cape Cod Bay. In J. D. Davis & D. Merriman (eds), Observations on the ecology and biology of western Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts. Lecture notes on coastal and estuarine studies 11. Springer-Verlag; Berlin: 65–76.Google Scholar
  29. Townsend, D. W., 1983. The relations between larval fishes and zooplankton in two inshore areas of the Gulf of Maine. J. Plankton Res. 5: 145–173.Google Scholar
  30. Turner, J. T., 1982. The annual cycle of zooplankton in a Long Island estuary. Estuaries 5: 261–274.Google Scholar
  31. Turner, J. T., 1984. The feeding ecology of some zooplankters that are important prey items of larval fish. NOAA Tech. Rept., NMFS 7: 1–28.Google Scholar
  32. Turner, J. T., 1986. Zooplankton feeding ecology: contents of fecal pellets of the cyclopoid copepods Oncaea venusta, Corycaeus amazonicus, Oithona plumifera and O. simplex from the northern Gulf of Mexico. P.S.Z.N.I: Mar. Ecol. 7: 289–302.Google Scholar
  33. Turner, J. T., 1991. Zooplankton feeding ecology: Do co-occurring copepods compete for the same food? Revue aquat. Sci. 5: 101–195.Google Scholar
  34. Turner, J. T. & M. J. Dagg, 1983. Vertical distributions of continental shelf zooplankton in stratified and isothermal waters. Biol. Oceanogr. 3: 1–40.Google Scholar
  35. Turner, J. T. & E. Granéli, 1992. Zooplankton feeding ecology: grazing during enclosure studies of phytoplankton blooms from the west coast of Sweden. J. exp. mar. Biol. Ecol. 157: 19–31.Google Scholar
  36. Uchima, M., 1988. Gut content analysis of neritic copepods Acartia omorii and Oithona davisae by a new method. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 48: 93–97.Google Scholar
  37. Uchima, M. & R. Hirano, 1986a. Food of Oithona davisae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) and the effect of food concentration at first feeding on the larval growth. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 33: 21–28.Google Scholar
  38. Uchima, M. & R. Hirano, 1986b. Predation and cannibalism in neritic copepods. Bull. Plankton Soc. Japan 33: 147–149.Google Scholar
  39. Wishner, K., E. Durbin, A. Durbin, M. Macaulay, H. Winn & R. Kenney, 1988. Copepod patches and right whales in the Great South Channel off New England. Bull. Mar. Sci. 43: 825–844.Google Scholar
  40. Zillioux, E. J. & J. G. Gonzalez. 1972. Egg dormancy in a neritic calanoid copepod and its implications to overwintering in boreal waters. In B. Battaglia (ed.), Fifth European marine biology symposium, Piccin Editore, Padova: 217–230.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jefferson T. Turner
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Marine Science and TechnologyUniversity of MassachusettsNorth DartmouthUSA

Personalised recommendations