Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 221–290 | Cite as

Galactic X-rays observed with X-ray astronomy satellite ‘Hakucho’

  • S. Hayakawa
Article

Abstract

Highlights of the results obtained with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite ‘Hakucho’ are reviewed. After a brief account of instrumentation (Section 2), some new features of non-bursting, non-pulsating objects are presented (Sections 3–5). The main part of the present review is devoted for X-ray bursts which are found more complex than one might have thought (Sections 6–11). The observation of X-ray pulsar, including a change of spin rate of Vela X-1, is described (Section 12). The main results obtained in the first two years are summarized in Section 13.

Keywords

Main Part Present Review Astronomy Satellite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Basinska, E. M., Lewin, W. H. G., Cominsky, L., van Paradijs, J., and Marshall, F. J.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 241, 787.Google Scholar
  2. Baym, G., Pethick, C., Pines, D., and Ruderman, M.: 1969, Nature 224, 872.Google Scholar
  3. Bessell, M. S., Vidal, N. V., and Wickramasinghe, D. T.: 1975, Astrophys. J. Letters 195, L117.Google Scholar
  4. Calla, O. P. N., Bhandari, S. M., Deshpande, M. R., and Vats Hari, O. M.: 1979, IAU Circ. No. 3347.Google Scholar
  5. Calla, O. P. N., Banathy, S., Snagal, A. K., Bhandari, S. M., Despande, M. R., and Vyas, H. O.: 1980, IAU Circ. Nos. 3458 and 3467.Google Scholar
  6. Canizares, C. R. and Neighbours, J. E.: 1975, Astrophys. J. Letters 199, L97.Google Scholar
  7. Charles, P. A., Mason, K. O., White, N. E., Culhane, J. L., Sanford, P. W., and Moffat, A. F. J.: 1978, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 183, 813.Google Scholar
  8. Clark, G. W., Jernigan, J. G., Bradt, H., Canizares, C., Lewin, W. H. G., Li, F. K., Mayer, W., and McClintock, J.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters 207, L105.Google Scholar
  9. Dougherty, J. P. and Farley, D. T.: 1960, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A259, 79.Google Scholar
  10. Fejer, J. A.: 1960, Can. J. Phys. 38, 1114.Google Scholar
  11. Forman, W., Jones, C., Tananbaum, H., Gursky, H., Kellogg, E., and Giacconi, R.: 1973, Astrophys. J. Letters 182, L103.Google Scholar
  12. Fujimoto, M. Y., Hanawa, T., and Miyaji, S.: 1981, Astrophys. J., in press.Google Scholar
  13. Gohsh, P. and Lamb, F. K.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 234, 296.Google Scholar
  14. Graham, J. A.: 1979, in W. B. Burton (ed.), ‘The Large-Scale Characteristics of the Galaxy’, IAU Symp. 84, 195Google Scholar
  15. Grindlay, J. E.: 1979, Astrophys. J. Letters 232, L33.Google Scholar
  16. Grindlay, J. E. and Gursky, H.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Letters 218, L117.Google Scholar
  17. Grindlay, J., Gurksy, H., Schnopper, H., Parsignoult, D. R., Heise, J., Brinkman, A. C., and Schrijver, J.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters 205, L127.Google Scholar
  18. Grindlay, J. E., McClintock, J. E., Canizares, C. R., van Paradijs, J., Cominsky, L., Li, F. K., and Lewin, W. H. G.: 1978, Nature 274, 567.Google Scholar
  19. Grindlay, J. E., Marshall, H. L., Hertz, P., Soltan, A., Weisskopf, M. C., Elsner, R. F., Gohsh, P., Darbro, W., and Sutherland, P. G.: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters 240, L121.Google Scholar
  20. Hayakawa, S.: 1981, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 33, 365.Google Scholar
  21. Hayakawa, S. and Nagase, F.: 1981, The 17th International Conference on Cosmic Rays.Google Scholar
  22. Hoffman, J. A., Lewin, W. H. G., and Doty, J.: 1977, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 179, 57.Google Scholar
  23. Hoffman, J. A., Cominsky, L., and Lewin, W. H. G.: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters 240, L27.Google Scholar
  24. Hoffman, J. A., Marshall, H. L., and Lewin, W. H. G.: 1978, Nature 271, 630.Google Scholar
  25. Holt, S. S., Kaluzinski, L. J., Boldt, E. A., and Serlemitsos, P. J.: 1976, Nature 261, 213.Google Scholar
  26. Holt, S. S., Kaluzinski, L. J., Boldt, E. A., and Serlemitsos, P. J.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 233, 344.Google Scholar
  27. Hutchings, J. B., Bernard, J. E., Crampton, D., and Cowley, A. P.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 223, 530.Google Scholar
  28. Ilovaisky, S. A.: 1981, IAU Circular No. 3586.Google Scholar
  29. Inoue, H. and Hakucho Team: 1979, Proc. 16th International Cosmic Ray Conference 1, 5, 52, 55, 57; 12, 7.Google Scholar
  30. Inoue, H. and Hakucho Team: 1980, Nature 283, 358.Google Scholar
  31. Inoue, H. and Hakucho Team: 1981, Astrophys. J. Letters, in press.Google Scholar
  32. Jones, A. W., Selby, M. J., Mountain, C. M., Wade, R., Sanchez, C. M., and Munoz, M. P.: 1980, Nature 283, 550.Google Scholar
  33. Joss, P. C.: 1977, Nature 270, 310.Google Scholar
  34. Joss, P. C.: 1978, Astrophys. J. Letters 225, L123.Google Scholar
  35. Joss, P. C. and Li, F. K.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 238, 287.Google Scholar
  36. Joss, P. C. and Rappaport, S.: 1980, Proc. Symp. on Space Astrophysics, Tokyo, p. 7.Google Scholar
  37. Kamiya, A.: 1981, Master Thesis, Nagoya University.Google Scholar
  38. Kemp, J. C., Barbour, M. S., and McBirney, R. E.: 1981, preprint.Google Scholar
  39. Kleinmann, D. E., Kleinmann, S. G., and Wright, E. L.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters 210, L83.Google Scholar
  40. Kondo, I. and Hakucho Team: 1981, Space Sci. Instr. 5, 211.Google Scholar
  41. Koyama, K. and Hakucho Team: 1981, Astrophys. J. Letters, in press.Google Scholar
  42. Kulkarni, P. V., Ashok, N. M., Apparao, K. M. V., and Chitre, S. M.: 1971, Nature 280, 819.Google Scholar
  43. Kunieda, H., Tawara, Y., and Hakucho Team: 1981, to be published.Google Scholar
  44. Lamb, F. K., Pines, D., and Shaham, J.: 1978, Astrophys. J. 224, 969; 225, 582.Google Scholar
  45. Lewin, W. H. G. and Clark, G. W.: 1979, ISAS Symposium on X-ray Astronomy, Tokyo, p. 3.Google Scholar
  46. Lewin, W. H. G. and Joss, P. C.: 1981, Space Sci. Rev. 28, 3.Google Scholar
  47. Lewin, W. H. G., Doty, J., Clark, G. W., Rappaport, S. A., Bradt, H. V. D., Doxey, R., Hearn, D. R., Hoffman, J. A., Jernigan, J. G., Li, F. K., Mayer, W., McClintock, J., Primini, F., and Richardson, J.: 1976a, Astrophys. J. Letters 207, L95.Google Scholar
  48. Lewin, W. H. G., Hoffman, J. A., Doty, J., Hearn, D. R., Clark, G. W., Jernigan, J. G., Li, F. K., McClintock, J. E., and Richardson, J.: 1976b, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 177, 83.Google Scholar
  49. Lewin, W. H. G., van Paradijs, J., Cominsky, L., and Holgner, S.: 1980, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 193, 15.Google Scholar
  50. Li, F. K., Rappaport, S., Clark, G. W., and Jernigan, J. G.: 1979, Astrophys. J. 228, 893.Google Scholar
  51. Liller, W.: 1977, Astrophys. J. Letters 213, L21.Google Scholar
  52. Makishima, K. and Hakucho Team: 1981a, Astrophys. J. Letters 244, L79.Google Scholar
  53. Makishima, K. and Hakucho Team: 1981b, Astrophys. J. Letters, in press.Google Scholar
  54. Markert, T. H., Canizares, C. R., Clark, G. W., Lewin, W. H. G., Schnopper, H. W., and Sprott, G. F.: 1973, Astrophys. J. Letters 184, L67.Google Scholar
  55. Matsuoka, M.: 1980, Proc. Symp. on Space Astrophysics, Tokyo, p. 88.Google Scholar
  56. Matsuoka, M. and Hakucho Team: 1980, Astrophys. J. Letters 240, L137.Google Scholar
  57. McClintock, J. E., Grindlay, J. E., Canizares, C. R., Van Paradijs, J., Cominsky, L., Li, F. K., and Lewin, W. H. G.: 1979, Nature 279, 47.Google Scholar
  58. Mitsuda, K.: 1981, Master Thesis, University of Tokyo.Google Scholar
  59. Murakami, T. and Hakucho Team: 1980a, Astrophys. J. Letters 240, L143.Google Scholar
  60. Murakami, T. and Hakucho Team: 1980b, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 32, 543.Google Scholar
  61. Nagase, F. and Hakucho Team: 1981a, Nature 290, 572.Google Scholar
  62. Nagase, F. and Hakucho Team: 1981b, to be published.Google Scholar
  63. Oda, M.: 1977, Space Sci. Rev. 20, 757.Google Scholar
  64. Oda, M.: 1979, Proc. Symp. on the Results and Future Prospects of X-Ray Astronomy, Tokyo, p. 89.Google Scholar
  65. Oda, M.: 1981, in R. Giacconi (ed.), X-Ray Astronomy with Einstein Satellite, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, p. 61.Google Scholar
  66. Ogawara, Y.: 1980, Proc. Symposium on Space Astrophysics, Tokyo, p. 53.Google Scholar
  67. Ohashi, T.: 1981, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tokyo.Google Scholar
  68. Ohashi, T. and Hakucho Team: 1981, Astrophys. J., in press.Google Scholar
  69. Rappaport, S. and Joss, P. C.: 1977, Nature 266, 683.Google Scholar
  70. Rappaport, S., Joss, P. C., and McClintock, J. E.: 1976, Astrophys. J. Letters 206, L103.Google Scholar
  71. Rappaport, S., Joss, P. C., and Stothers, R.: 1980, Astrophys. J. 235, 570.Google Scholar
  72. Rosenberg, F. D., Eyles, C. J., Skinner, G. K., and Willmore, A. P.: 1975, Nature 256, 628.Google Scholar
  73. Rosenbluth, M. N. and Rostoker, N.: 1962, Phys. Fluids 5, 776.Google Scholar
  74. Salpeter, E. E.: 1960, Phys. Rev. 120, 1528.Google Scholar
  75. Samimni, J., Share, G., Wood, K., Yentis, D., Meekins, J., Evans, W. D., Shulman, E. T., Chubb, T. A., and Friedman, H.: 1979, Nature 274, 434.Google Scholar
  76. Sato, S., Kawara, K., Kobayashi, Y., Maihara, T., Okuda, H., and Jugaku, J.: 1980, Nature 286, 688.Google Scholar
  77. Stier, M. and Liller, W.: 1976, Astrophys. J. 206, 257.Google Scholar
  78. Tanaka, Y.: 1979, Proc. Symp. on the Results and Future Prospects of X-Ray Astronomy, Tokyo, p. 61.Google Scholar
  79. Tawara, Y.: 1980, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tokyo.Google Scholar
  80. Tawara, Y. and Hakucho Team: 1981, to be published.Google Scholar
  81. Terzan, A. C. R.: 1968, Acad. Sci. Paris 267, B-1245.Google Scholar
  82. Tsunemi, H. and Hakucho Team: 1981, Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 33, 205.Google Scholar
  83. van Paradijs, J.: 1978, Nature 274, 650.Google Scholar
  84. van Paradijs, J., Cominsky, L., and Lewin, W. H. G.: 1979, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 189, 387.Google Scholar
  85. Watson, M. G. and Griffiths, R. E.: 1977, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. 173, 513.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Co 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Hayakawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AstrophysicsNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations