Water, Air, and Soil Pollution

, Volume 44, Issue 1–2, pp 143–158

Copper toxicity and chemistry in the environment: a review

  • C. A. Flemming
  • J. T. Trevors

DOI: 10.1007/BF00228784

Cite this article as:
Flemming, C.A. & Trevors, J.T. Water Air Soil Pollut (1989) 44: 143. doi:10.1007/BF00228784


Copper compounds have been widely used in industrial processes and agriculture. As a result, elevated Cu concentrations can be found in certain areas of the biosphere. To better understand the toxicity of Cu to organisms it is necessary to understand the mechanism by which Cu influences biological and chemical processes in the environment. This review will examine Cu toxicity, microbial resistance mechanisms and factors influencing Cu speciation and toxicity in the environment

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Flemming
    • 1
  • J. T. Trevors
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental Biology, Chemistry-Microbiology Bldg.University of GuelphGuelphCanada

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