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Space Science Reviews

, Volume 44, Issue 1–2, pp 139–168 | Cite as

Relationship of coronal transients to interplanetary shocks: 3D aspects

  • Rainer Schwenn
Article

Abstract

More than 1000 coronal mass ejections (CMEs) caused by different types of coronal transients have been analyzed up to now, based on the images from white light coronagraphs on board the OSO 7, Skylab, P78-1, and SMM spacecraft. In many cases, the CME images lead us to the impression of loop-like, more planar structures, similar to those of prominence structures often seen in Hα pictures. There is increasing evidence, though, for a three-dimensional bubble- or cloud-like structure of CMEs. In several cases, CMEs directed toward the earth (or away from it) were identified, as their outer fronts emerged on all sides of the coronagraph's occulting disk, thus suggesting a bubble-like appearance.

There now appears to be unanimity about the crucial role that magnetic reconnection plays during the transient process. Recently, direct evidence was found for the ‘pinch-off of CMEs, both from optical observations and from in situ measurements of isolated ‘magnetic clouds' following transient shock waves. However, the detailed sequence of events during the generation of a CME is still unclear.

Interplanetary shock waves associated with the CMEs are usually restricted in latitudinal extent to about the angular width of the optically observed CMEs. They may be somewhat less restricted in longitudinal extent. A nearly 1 ∶ 1 association between CMEs and shock waves measured in situ from spacecraft (Helios 1 and 2, IMP 7 and 8, ISEE 3, Pioneer Venus) can be established, provided the CME and the spacecraft were in the same longitudinal and latitudinal range and the CME speed exceeds ∼ 400 km s−1. Around the past solar activity minimum all CMEs observed were centered at solar latitudes of less than 60°. Around solar maximum, a significant fraction of CMEs also originated from the polar regions. Thus, there is a good chance that the Ulysses spaceprobe will encounter many shocks caused by both low- and high-latitude CMEs, when it finally starts its journey over the Sun's poles.

Keywords

Shock Wave Coronal Mass Ejection Magnetic Reconnection Magnetic Cloud Interplanetary Shock 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rainer Schwenn
    • 1
  1. 1.Earth and Space Sciences DivisionLos Alamos National LaboratoryLos AlamosUSA

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