Fate and effects of the insecticide Dursban® 4E in indoor Elodea-dominated and macrophyte-free freshwater model ecosystems: I. Fate and primary effects of the active ingredient chlorpyrifos

  • T. C. M. Brock
  • S. J. H. Crum
  • R. van Wijngaarden
  • B. J. Budde
  • J. Tijink
  • A. Zuppelli
  • P. Leeuwangh
Article

DOI: 10.1007/BF00225998

Cite this article as:
Brock, T.C.M., Crum, S.J.H., van Wijngaarden, R. et al. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (1992) 23: 69. doi:10.1007/BF00225998

Abstract

The fate of the insecticide Dursban® 4E (active ingredient chlorpyrifos) and its effect on crustaceans and insects was studied in indoor experimental freshwater ecosystems that intended to mimick drainage ditches. A single dose (simulating aerial drift) was applied to achieve nominal chlorpyrifos concentrations of 5 or 35 μg/L. Two experiments were performed, one in which all model ecosystems were dominated by the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii, and one using systems devoid of macrophytes.

In macrophyte-dominated systems, Elodea vegetation adsorbed a large proportion of the dose applied and hampered the mixing of the insecticide in the water (at least up till day 8). Only a small proportion became incorporated in the sediment. In open water systems the insecticide was rapidly mixed in the water, and the sediment played a very significant role as sink for chlorpyrifos. In both Elodea-dominated and open water systems 50% of the dose applied had disappeared on day 8 post-treatment. The rate of disappearance of chlorpyrifos was relatively rapid in water and macrophytes, and relatively slow in the sediment.

Of the arthropods in the zooplankton Cladocera were more susceptible than Copepoda. Significant effects (p⩽0.05) on Cladocera occurred relatively late in Elodea-dominated systems (in week 4 post-application) in contrast to open water systems (week 1), which is in accordance with the observed differences in the fate of chlorpyrifos. Daphnia pulex, D. longispina and Simocephalus vetulus recovered in the model ecosystems when chlorpyrifos concentrations were lower than 0.1–0.2 μg/L, which is in agreement with results of laboratory protocol tests performed with these cladocerans.

Among the macroscopic Arthropoda the apparent order of susceptibility was amphipods > insects > isopods. The isopod Asellus aquaticus was more sensitive to the application of the insecticide than the closely related species Proasellus coxalis. In treated open water systems the latter even increased significantly in numbers. Cage experiments in the model ecosystems performed with several species of Arthropoda indicate that laboratory protocol tests may give a reasonable prediction of short-term direct effects of chlorpyrifos for the same species inhabiting more complex aquatic systems.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. C. M. Brock
    • 1
    • 2
  • S. J. H. Crum
    • 1
  • R. van Wijngaarden
    • 1
  • B. J. Budde
    • 2
  • J. Tijink
    • 2
  • A. Zuppelli
    • 3
  • P. Leeuwangh
    • 1
  1. 1.DLO the Winand Staring Centre for Integrated Land, Soil and Water ResearchWageningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Nature ConservationAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of ToxicologyAgricultural UniversityWageningenThe Netherlands

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