Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 255, Issue 2, pp 423–429

Induced locomotion of human and murine macrophages: A comparative analysis by means of the modified Boyden-chamber system and the agarose migration assay

  • H. Michna


This study was designed to gain detailed information concerning the kinetic activity of connective tissuederived macrophages from living human specimens. Their kinetic activity in vitro was estimated using the agarosemigration assay and the modified Boyden-chamber, and compared with that of murine peritoneal macrophages. These assays permit the distinction of chemotactic and chemokinetic patterns as well as spontaneous migration. These kinetic activities were stimulated by and calculated for ultrasound-crushed suspensions of Escherichia coli, zymosan-activated human serum, human serum albumin, casein-activated human serum, tripeptide f-Met-Leu-Phe (N-α-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine), phytohemagglutinine, modified Eagle's medium and phosphate buffer. Investigation of the migratory performance (in μm) in the Boyden-chamber and by the agarose migration assay for chemokinetics and chemotaxis by using tripeptides as chemotactically attracting agents revealed a somewhat higher activity in murine than in human macrophages.

Key words

Macrophages Cell migration Chemotaxis Chemokinetics Man 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ackermann SK, Douglas SD (1978) Purification of human monocytes on microexudate coated surfaces. J Immunol 120:1372–1374Google Scholar
  2. Altman LC, Snyderman R, Blaese RM (1974) Abnormalities of chemotactic lymphokine synthesis and mononuclear leukocyte chemotaxis in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. J Clin Invest 54:486–493Google Scholar
  3. Anderson DC, Wible LJ, Hughes BJ, Smith CW, Brinkley BR (1982) Cytoplasmic microtubules in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: effects of chemotactic stimulation and cholchicine. Cell 31:719–729Google Scholar
  4. Becker U, Furthmayr H, Timple R (1975a) Tryptic peptides from the cross linking regions of insoluble calf skin collagen. HoppeSeyler's Z Physiol Chem 356:21–32Google Scholar
  5. Becker U, Fietzek PP, Furthmayr H, Timple R (1975b) Non-helical sequences of rabbit collagen. Correlation with antigenic determinants detected by rabbit antibodies in homologous regions of rat and calf collagen. Eur J Biochem 54:359–366Google Scholar
  6. Bieger WP, Weiss M, Weicker H (1981) Insulin affinity and hormone-dependent activity of human circulating monocytes after exercise. In: Poortsmans J, Niset G (eds) Biochemistry of exercise. Vol 4 A. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 163–171Google Scholar
  7. Boncek MM, Snyderman R (1976) Calcium influx requirement for human neutrophil chemotaxis: inhibition by lanthanum chloride. Science 193:905–907Google Scholar
  8. Boumsell L, Meltzer MS (1975) Mouse mononuclear cell chemotaxis. Differential response of monocytes and macrocytes. J Immunol 115:1746–1748Google Scholar
  9. Boyden S (1962) The chemotactic effect of mixtures of antibody and antigen on polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Exp Med 115:453–466Google Scholar
  10. Bültmann BD, Gruler H (1983) Analysis of the directed and nondirected movement of human granulocytes: Influence of temperature and ECHO 9 virus on N-formylmethionylleucyl-phenylalanine-induced chemokinesis and chemotaxis. J Cell Biol 96:1708–1716Google Scholar
  11. Cheung H, Cantarow WD, Sundharadas G (1978) Colchicine and cytochalasin B effects on random movement, spreading and adhesion of mouse macrophages. Exp Cell Res 111:95–104Google Scholar
  12. Crispe JN (1978) The effect of vinblastine, colchicine and hexylene glycol on migration of human monocytes. Exp Cell Res 100:433–446Google Scholar
  13. Dierich MP, Landen B (1977) Complement bridges between cells. Analysis of a possible cell-cell interaction mechanism. J Exp Med 146:1484–1499Google Scholar
  14. Dierich MP, Wilhelmi D, Till G (1977) Essential role of surface bound chemoattractant in leukocyte migration. Nature 270:351–352Google Scholar
  15. Dierich MP, Sablotny W, Till G (1980) Migration of leucocytes into filters coated homogeneously with immune complexes, antigens, lectins or tripeptides. Immunobiology 157:47–53Google Scholar
  16. Dohlman JG, Goetzl EJ (1978) Unique determinants of alveolar macrophage spontaneous and chemokinetically stimulated migration. Cell Immunol 39:36–46Google Scholar
  17. Gallin EK, Gallin JI (1977) Interaction of chemotactic factors with human macrophages. J Cell Biol 75:277–289Google Scholar
  18. Gallin JI, Rosenthal AS (1974) The regulatory role of divalent cations in human granulocyte chemotaxis: Evidence for an association between calcium exchanges and microtubule assembly. J Cell Biol 62:594–609Google Scholar
  19. Haug H (1962) Bedeutung und Grenzen der quantitativen Messmethoden in der Histologie. In: Bauer KF (ed) Medizinische Grundlagenforschung. Vol 4. Thieme, Stuttgart, pp 300–344Google Scholar
  20. Hausman MS, Snyderman R, Mergenhagen SE (1972) Humoral mediators of chemotaxis of mononuclear leukocytes. J Infect Dis 125:595–602Google Scholar
  21. Keller HU, Borel J-F, Wilkinson PC, Hess MW, Cottier H (1972) Reassessment of Boyden's technique for measuring chemotaxis. J Immunol Methods 1:165–168Google Scholar
  22. Koo C, Snyderman R (1980) Chemotactic peptide protects against inhibition by cytochalasin B of peptide binding on human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNS): a potential mechanism for enhanced gradient sensing. Clin Res 28:373aGoogle Scholar
  23. Lackie JM, Urquhart CM, Brown AF, Forrester JV (1985) Studies on the locomotory behaviour and adhesive properties of mononuclear phagocytes from blood. Br J Haematol 60:567–581Google Scholar
  24. Malech HL, Root RK, Gallin JI (1977) Structural analysis of human neutrophil migration. Centriole, microtubule, and microfilament orientation and function during chemotaxis. J Cell Biol 75:666–693Google Scholar
  25. Michna H (1988) The human macrophage system: activity and functional morphology. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  26. Nath J, Flavin M, Schiffmann E (1981) Stimulation of tubulin tryolisation in rabbit leukocytes evoked by the chemoattractant formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine. J Cell Biol 91:232–239Google Scholar
  27. Nelson RD, Quie PG, Simmons RE (1975) Chemotaxis under agarose: a new and simple method for measuring chemotaxis and spontaneous migration of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes. J Immunol 115:1650–1656Google Scholar
  28. Niedel J, David J, Cuatrecasas P (1980) Characterization and affinity labeling of the chemotactic receptor on purified human neutrophil membranes. Fed Proc 39:1049Google Scholar
  29. Pick E, Honig S, Griffel B (1979) The mechanism of action of soluble lymphocyte mediators. VI. Effect of migration inhibitory factor (MIF) on macrophage microtubules. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 58:149–159Google Scholar
  30. Rister M (1983) Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  31. Snyderman R, Goetzl E (1981) Molecular and cellular mechanisms of leukocyte chemotaxis. Science 213:830–837Google Scholar
  32. Snyderman R, Mergenhagen SE (1972) Characterization ofpolymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotactic activity in serums activated by various inflammatory agents. In: Ingram DG (ed) Biological activities of complement. Karger, Basel, pp 117–132Google Scholar
  33. Snyderman R, Pike M (1976) Chemotaxis of mononuclear cell. In: Bloom BR, David JR (eds) In vitro methods in cell mediated and tumor immunity. Academic Press, New York, pp 651–661Google Scholar
  34. Soman VR, Koivisto VA, Grantham P, Feiig P (1978) Increased insulin binding to monocytes after acute exercise in normal man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47:216–218Google Scholar
  35. Sorkin E (1974) Biology and biochemistry of chemotaxis. Karger, BaselGoogle Scholar
  36. Spilberg J, Mandell B, Hoffstein S (1979) A proposed model for chemotactic deactivation. Evidence for microtubule modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis. J Lab Clin Med 94:361–369Google Scholar
  37. Van Dyke TE, Reilly AA, Genco RJ (982) Regression line analysis of neutrophil chemotaxis. Immunopharmacology 4:23–39Google Scholar
  38. Van Furth R (1981) Development of mononuclear phagocytes. In: Förster O, Landy M (eds) Heterogeneity of mononuclear phagocytes. Academic Press, London, pp 3–10Google Scholar
  39. Van Furth R (1986) Overview: The mononuclear phagocyte system. In: Wier DM, Herzenberg LA, Blackwell C, Herzenberg LA (eds) Cellular Immunology, Vol 2. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, pp 42.1–42.5Google Scholar
  40. Ward PA, Cochrane CG, Müller-Eberhard HJ (1965) The role of serum complement in chemotaxis of leukocytes in vitro. J Exp Med 122:327–346Google Scholar
  41. Ward PA (1968) Chemotaxis of mononuclear cells. J Exp Med 128:1201–1221Google Scholar
  42. Ward PA, Remold HG, David J (1969) Leukotactic factor produced by sensitized lymphocytes. Science 163:1079–1081Google Scholar
  43. Wilkinson PC (1974) Chemotaxis and inflammation. Churchill Livingstone, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilkinson PC (1986) Locomotion and chemotaxis of leukocytes. In: Weir DM, Herzenberg LA, Blackwell C, Herzenberg LA (eds) Cellular Immunology, Vol 2. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 51.1–51.16Google Scholar
  45. Zakireh B, Malech HL (1980) The effect of colchicine and vinblastine on the chemotactic response of human monocytes. J Immunol 125:2143–2153Google Scholar
  46. Zigmond H, Hirsch JG (1973) Leukocyte locomotion and chemotaxis. New methods for evaluation and demonstration of a cell derived chemotactic factor. J Exp Med 137:387–410Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Michna
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Universität zu LübeckLübeckGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Anatomie der Medizinischen Universität zu LübeckLübeckGermany

Personalised recommendations