Advertisement

Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 171, Issue 3, pp 351–358 | Cite as

Cone photopigments in nocturnal and diurnal procyonids

  • Gerald H. Jacobs
  • Jess F. DeeganII
Article

Summary

Procyonids are small, New World carnivores distributed among some 6 genera. Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to measure the spectra of the cone photopigments for members of two nocturnal species, the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the kinkajou (Potos flavus), and a diurnal species, the coati (Nasua nasua). Each of the 3 has a class of cone photopigment with maximum sensitivity in the middle to long wavelengths. The spectral positioning of this cone is different for the three. Whereas the raccoon and kinkajou are monochromatic, the diurnal coati is a dichromat having an additional class of cone photopigment with peak sensitivity close to 433 nm.

Key words

Cone photopigments Electroretinogram flicker photometry Procyonids Dichromacy Monochromacy 

Abbreviations

ERG

electroretinogram

SWS

short wavelength sensitive

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Cole LW, Long FM (1909) Visual discriminations in raccoons. J Comp Neurol Psychol 19:567–583Google Scholar
  2. Cooper GF, Robson JG (1969) The yellow colour of the lens of the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis). J Physiol (London) 203:403–410Google Scholar
  3. Corbet GB, Hill JE (1991) A world list of mammalian species. 3rd edit. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Crescitelli F (1958) The natural history of visual pigments. Ann New York Acad Sci 74:230–255Google Scholar
  5. Dartnall HJA (1975) Assessing the fitness of visual pigments for their photic environment. In: Ali MA (ed) Vision in fishes. Plenum, New York, pp 543–563Google Scholar
  6. Dartnall HJA, Lythgoe JN (1965) The spectral clustering of visual pigments. Vision Res 5:81–100Google Scholar
  7. Diesem C (1975) Carnivore sense organs and common integument. In: Getty R (ed) Sisson and Grossman's the anatomy of domestic animals. 5th edit. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 1741–1768Google Scholar
  8. Ebrey RG, Honig B (1977) New wavelength-dependent visual pigment nomograms. Vision Res 27:147–151Google Scholar
  9. Ewer RF (1973) The carnivores. Weidenfeld and Nicholson, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Goldsmith TH (1990) Optimization, constraint and history in the evolution of eyes. Q Rev Biol 65:281–322Google Scholar
  11. Govardovskii VI (1976) Comments on the sensitivity hypothesis. Vision Res 16:1363–1364Google Scholar
  12. Govardovskii VI, Röhlich P, Szel A, Khokhlova TV (1992) Cones in the retina of the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): An immunocytochemical and electrophysiological study. Vision Res 32:19–27Google Scholar
  13. Gregg FM, Jamison E, Wilkie R, Radinsky T (1927) Are cats, dogs and raccoons color blind? J Comp Psychol 9:379–395Google Scholar
  14. Jacobs GH (1981) Comparative color vision. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacobs GH, Neitz J (1985) Spectral positioning of mammalian cone pigments. J Opt Soc Am A 2:P23Google Scholar
  16. Jacobs GH, Neitz J (1987) Inheritance of color vision in a New World monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:2545–2549Google Scholar
  17. Jacobs GH, Neitz J, Deegan II JF (1991) Retinal receptors in rodents maximally sensitive to ultraviolet lights. Nature 353:655–656Google Scholar
  18. Jacobs GH, Deegan II JF, Crognale MA, Fenwick JA (1992) Photopigments of dogs and foxes and their implications for canid vision. Visual Neurosci (in press)Google Scholar
  19. Kaufman JH (1962) Ecology and social behavior of the coati, Nasua narica, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Univ Calif Publ Zool 60:95–222Google Scholar
  20. Kaufman JH (1982) Raccoon and allies. In: Chapman JA, Feldhamer GA (eds) Wild mammals of North America. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, pp 567–585Google Scholar
  21. Lythgoe JN (1991) Evolution of visual behavior. In: Cronly-Dillon JR, Gregory RL (eds) Evolution of the eye and visual system. Boca Raton, CRC Press, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  22. Michels KM, Fisher BE, Johnson Jr JI (1960) Raccoon performance on color discrimination problems. J Comp Physiol Psychol 53:379–380Google Scholar
  23. Neitz J, Jacobs GH (1984) ERG measurements of cone spectral sensitivity in dichromatic monkeys. J Opt Soc Am A 1:1175–1180Google Scholar
  24. Neitz M, Neitz J, Jacobs GH (1991) Spectral tuning of pigments underlying red-green color vision. Science 252:971–974Google Scholar
  25. Nowak RM, Paradiso JL (1983) Walker's Mammals of the World. V II, 4th Edit. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University PressGoogle Scholar
  26. Vincent SB (1912) The mammalian eye. J Anim Behav 2:246–255Google Scholar
  27. Walker PL, Cant JGH (1977) A population survey of kinkajous (Potos flavus) in a seasonally dry tropical forest. J Mammal 58:100–102Google Scholar
  28. Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Bloomfield Hills Michigan, The Cranbrook Institute of ScienceGoogle Scholar
  29. Wayne RK, Benvenisti RE, Janczewski DN, O'Brien SJ (1989) Molecular and biochemical evolution of Carnivora. In: Gittleman JL (ed) Carnivore behavior, ecology, and evolution. London, Chapman and Hall, pp 465–494Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald H. Jacobs
    • 1
  • Jess F. DeeganII
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations