Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 85, Issue 1, pp 55–60 | Cite as

Occurrence of unreduced pollen in diploid blueberry species, Vaccinium sect. Cyanococcus

  • R. Ortiz
  • N. Vorsa
  • L. P. Bruederle
  • T. Laverty


A total of 1475 individuals belonging to 43 natural populations of seven diploid (2x) blueberry species (Vaccinium section Cyanococcus) and two natural interspecific 2x hybrid populations were evaluated for unreduced pollen production. Significant differences were found in the frequency of unreduced pollen producers between species and within and between populations of the same species. Individuals with 1% or more unreduced pollen were considered unreduced pollen producers. The average frequency of unreduced pollen producers in these diploid species was 13.5%, ranging from 7.4% (V. corymbosum) to 18.4% (V. darrowii). The frequency of unreduced pollen grains in individual clones varied from <-1% to 28.6%. The production of unreduced pollen was not associated with male fertility. The widespread occurrence of unreduced pollen in the diploid species should allow the introgression of this germ plasm to the tetraploid level via unilateral sexual polyploidization.

Key words

Blueberry Unreduced gametes 2n gametes First division restitution Sexual polyploidization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aalders LE, Hall IV (1963) Note on aeration of colchicine solution in the treatment of germinating blueberry seeds to induce polyploidy. Can J Plant Sci 43:107.Google Scholar
  2. Ballington JR, Ballinger WE, Mainland CM, Swallow WH, Maness EP, Galletta GJ, Kushman LJ (1984a) Ripening period of Vaccinium species in southeastern North Carolina. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:392–396.Google Scholar
  3. Ballington JR, Ballinger WE, Mainland CM, Swallow WH, Maness EP, Galletta GJ, Kushman LJ (1984b) Fruit quality characterization of 11 Vaccinium species. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 109:507–509.Google Scholar
  4. Bruederle LP, Vorsa N (1990) Systematic relationships among the diploid blueberry species (Vaccinium x Cyanococcus A.Gray; Ericaceae). Am J Bot 77:122 (abstr).Google Scholar
  5. Cockerham LE, Galletta GJ (1976) A survey of pollen characteristics in certain Vaccinium species. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 101:671–676.Google Scholar
  6. den Nijs TPM, Peloquin SJ (1977) Polyploid evolution via 2n gametes. Am Potato J 54: 377–386.Google Scholar
  7. Dweikat IM, Lyrene PM (1988) Production and viability of unreduced gametes in triploid interspecific blueberry hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 76:555–559.Google Scholar
  8. Erb WA, Draper AD, Swartz HJ (1988) Methods of screening blueberry seedling populations for drought resistance. HortScience 23:312–314.Google Scholar
  9. Fienberg SE (1977) The analysis of cross classified data. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  10. Galletta GJ (1975) Blueberries and cranberries. In Janick J, Moore J (eds) Advances in fruit breeding. Purdue University Press, West Lafayette, In., pp 154–196.Google Scholar
  11. Hancock JF (1989) Blueberry research in North America. Acta Hortic 241:19–30.Google Scholar
  12. Iwanaga M, Peloquin SJ (1982) Origin and evolution of cultivated 4x potatoes via 2n gametes. Theor Appl Genet 78:329–336.Google Scholar
  13. Krebs SL, Hancock JF (1988) The consequences of inbreeding on fertility in Vaccinium corymbosum. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 113:914–918.Google Scholar
  14. Lyrene PM, Sherman WB (1980) The occurrence and severity of cane canker (Botryosphaeria corticis) on Vaccinium species native to Florida. HortScience 15:150–151.Google Scholar
  15. Lyrene PM, Sherman WB (1983) Mitotic instability and 2n gamete production in Vaccinium corymbosum x V. elliottii hybrids. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 108:339–342.Google Scholar
  16. Mackey J (1970) Significance of mating system for chromosome and gametes in polyploids. Hereditas 66:165–176.Google Scholar
  17. McCoy TJ (1982) The inheritance of 2n pollen formation in diploid alfalfa Medicago sativa. Can J Genet Cytol 24:315–323.Google Scholar
  18. Megalos BS, Ballington JR (1987) Pollen fertility in southeastern United States diploid Vaccinium species. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:1009–1012.Google Scholar
  19. Megalos BS, Ballington JR (1988) Unreduced pollen frequencies versus hybrid production in diploid-tetraploid Vaccinium crosses. Euphytica 39:271–278.Google Scholar
  20. Moon JW, Flore JA, Hancock JF (1987a) A comparison of carbon and water vapor gas exchange characteristics between a diploid lowbush blueberry and highbush blueberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:134–139.Google Scholar
  21. Moon JW, Hancock JF, Draper AD, Flore JA (1987b) Genotypic differences in the effect of temperature on CO2 assimilation and water use efficiency in blueberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 112:170–173.Google Scholar
  22. Moore JN, Scott DH, Dermen H (1964) Development of a decaploid blueberry by colchicine treatment. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 84:274–279.Google Scholar
  23. Ortiz R (1991) Efficiency of potato breeding using 2n gametes; Male sterility and 2n pollen in 4x potato. PhD theseis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.Google Scholar
  24. Ortiz R, Peloquin SJ (1991) Breeding for 2n egg production in haploid x species 2x potato hybrids. Am Potato J 68:691–703.Google Scholar
  25. Parrot WA, Smith RR (1986) Recurrent selection for 2n pollen formation in red clover. Crop Sci 26:1132–1135.Google Scholar
  26. Peloquin SJ, Ortiz R (1991) Techniques for introgressing unadapted germ plasm to breeding populations. In: Stalker HT (ed) Plant breeding in the 1990s. CAB Int (in press).Google Scholar
  27. Rousi A (1966a) The use of North-European Vaccinium species in blueberry breeding. Acta Agric Scand Suppl 16:50–54.Google Scholar
  28. Rousi A (1966b) Cytological observations on some species and hybrids of Vaccinium. Zuechter 36:352–359.Google Scholar
  29. Sharpe RH, Darrow GM (1959) Breeding blueberries for the Florida climate. Proc Fla State Hortic Soc 72:308–311.Google Scholar
  30. Sharpe RH, Sherman WB (1971) Breeding blueberries for low chilling requirement. HortScience 6:145–147.Google Scholar
  31. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry. W. H. Freeman, New York.Google Scholar
  32. Stushnoff C, Hough LJ (1968) Sporogenesis and gametophyte development in ‘Bluecrop’ and ‘Coville’ highbush blueberries. Proc Am Soc Hortic Sci 93:242–247.Google Scholar
  33. Stushnoff C, Palser BF (1969) Embryology of five Vaccinium taxa including diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid species or cultivars. Phytomorphology 19:312–331.Google Scholar
  34. Vander Kloet SP (1988) The genus Vaccinium in North America. Research Branch Agriculture Canada. Publ 1828.Google Scholar
  35. Vorsa N (1986) Cytology of 2n pollen formation in a Vaccinium ashei/corymbosum hybrid. HortScience 21:315.Google Scholar
  36. Vorsa N, Ballington JR (1991) Fertility of triploid highbush blueberry. J Am Soc Hortic Sci 116:336–341.Google Scholar
  37. Watanabe K, Peloquin SJ, Endo M (1991) Genetic significance of mode of polyploidization: somatic doubling or 2n gametes. Genome 34:28–34.Google Scholar
  38. Yates F (1934) Contigency tables involving small numbers and the χ2 test. J R Stat Soc Suppl 1:217–235.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Ortiz
    • 1
  • N. Vorsa
    • 1
  • L. P. Bruederle
    • 1
  • T. Laverty
    • 1
  1. 1.Blueberry and Cranberry Research Center, Rutgers UniversityChatsworthUSA

Personalised recommendations