Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 93, Issue 8, pp 1291–1298 | Cite as

Chromosome substitutions of Triticum timopheevii in common wheat and some observations on the evolution of polyploid wheat species

  • G. L. Brown-Guedira
  • E. D. Badaeva
  • B. S. Gill
  • T. S. Cox


Whether the two tetraploid wheat species, the well known Triticum turgidum L. (macaroni wheat, AABB genomes) and the obscure T. timopheevii Zhuk. (AtAtGG), have monophyletic or diphyletic origin from the same or different diploid species presents an interesting evolutionary problem. Moreover, T. timopheevii and its wild form T. araraticum are an important genetic resource for macaroni and bread-wheat improvement. To study these objectives, the substitution and genetic compensation abilities of individual T. timopheevii chromosomes for missing chromosomes of T. aestivum ‘Chinese Spring’ (AABBDD) were analyzed. ‘Chinese Spring’ aneuploids (nullisomic-tetrasomics) were crossed with a T. timopheevii x Aegilops tauschii amphiploid to isolate T. timopheevii chromosomes in a monosomic condition. The F1 hybrids were backcrossed one to four times to Chinese Spring aneuploids without selection for the T. timopheevii chromosome of interest. While spontaneous substitutions involving all At- and G-genome chromosomes were identified, the targeted T. timopheevii chromosome was not always recovered. Lines with spontaneous substitutions from T. timopheevii were chosen for further backcrossing. Six T. timopheevii chromosome substitutions were isolated: 6At (6A), 2G (2B), 3G (3B), 4G (4B), 5G (5B) and 6G (6B). The substitution lines had normal morphology and fertility. The 6At of T. timopheevii was involved in a translocation with chromosome 1G, resulting in the transfer of the group-1 gliadin locus to 6At. Chromosome 2G substituted for 2B at a frequency higher than expected and may carry putative homoeoalleles of gametocidal genes present on group-2 chromosomes of several alien species. Our data indicate a common origin for tetraploid wheat species, but from separate hybridization events because of the presence of a different spectrum of intergenomic translocations.

Key words

Triticum timopheevii Triticum aestivum Chromosome substitution C-banding 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Badaeva ED, Gill BS (1995) Spontaneous chromosome substitutions in hybrids of Triticum aestivum with T. araraticum detected by C-banding technique. Wheat Inf Service 80:26–31Google Scholar
  2. Badaeva ED, Shkutina FM, Bogdevich IN, Badaev NS (1986) Comparative study of Triticum aestivum and T. timopheevi genomes using C-banding techniques. Pl Syst Evol 154:183–194Google Scholar
  3. Badaeva ED, Budashkina EB, Badaev NS, Kalinina NP, Shkutina FM (1991) General features of chromosome substitutoins in Triticum aestivum x T. timopheevii hybrids. Theor Appl Genet 82:227–232Google Scholar
  4. Badaeva ED, Filatenko AA, Badaev NS (1994) Cytogenetic investigation of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. and related species using the C-banding technique. Theor Appl Genet 89:622–628Google Scholar
  5. Beitz JA (1987) Genetics and biochemical studies of nonenzymatic endosperm proteins. In: Heyne EG (ed) Wheat and wheat improvement. 2nd edn. Am Soc Agron Madison Wisconsin, pp 215–241Google Scholar
  6. Brown-Guedira GL (1995) Breeding value and cytogenetic structure of Triticum timopheevii var. araraticum. PhD thesis. Kansas State University, Manhattan, KansasGoogle Scholar
  7. Carlson PS (1972) Locating genetic loci with aneuploids. Mol Gen Genet 114:272Google Scholar
  8. Chen PD, Gill BS (1983) The origin of chromosome 4A, and Genomes B and G of tetraploid wheats. In: Sakamoto S (ed) Proc 6th Int Wheat Genet Symp. Plant Germ-plasm Institute, Kyoto, Japan pp 39–48Google Scholar
  9. Dvorák J (1983) The origin of wheat chromosomes 4A and 4B and their genome reallocation. Can J Genet Cytol 25:210–214Google Scholar
  10. Dvorák J, di Terlizzi P, Zhang H-B, Resta P (1993) The evolution of polyploid wheat: identification of the A genome donor species. Genome 36:21–31Google Scholar
  11. Endo TR, Gill BS (1984) Somatic karyotype heterochromatin distribution and the nature of chromosome differentiation in common wheat Triticum aestivum L. em Thell. Chromosoma 89:361–369Google Scholar
  12. Endo TR, Gill BS (1996) The deletion stocks of common wheat. J. Hered 87:295–307Google Scholar
  13. Feldman M (1966) Identification of unpaired chromosomes in F1 hybrids involving T. aestivum and T. timopheevi. Can J Genet Cytol 8:144–151Google Scholar
  14. Friebe B, Heun M, Tuleen N, Zeller FJ, Gill BS (1994) Cytogenetically monitored transfer of powdery mildew resistance from rye into wheat. Crop Sci 34:621–625Google Scholar
  15. Gill BS, Chen PD (1987) Role of cytoplasm-specific introgression in the evolution of polyploid wheats. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:6800–6804Google Scholar
  16. Gill KS, Gill BS, Snyder EB (1988) Triticum araraticum chromosome substitutions in common wheat Triticum aestivum cv Wichita. In: Miller TE, Koebner RMD (eds) Proc 7th Int Wheat Genet Symp. Inst Plant Sci Res, Cambridge, England, pp 87–92Google Scholar
  17. Gill BS, Friebe B, Endo TR (1991) Standard karyotype and nomenclature system for description of chromosome bands and structural aberrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome 34:830–839Google Scholar
  18. Gyarfus J (1968) Transfer of disease resistance from Triticum timopheevii to Triticum aestivum. MSc thesis, University of Sydney NSW, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  19. Hart GE (1987) Genetic and biochemical studies of enzymes. In: Heyne EG (ed) Wheat and wheat improvement. 2nd edn. Am Soc Agron, Madison, Wisconsin, pp 199–214Google Scholar
  20. Hart GE, Langston PJ (1977) Chromosomal location and evolution of isozyme structural genes in hexaploid wheat. Heredity 39:263–277Google Scholar
  21. Jaaska V (1978) NADP-dependent aromatic alcohol dehydrogenase in polyploid wheats and their diploid relatives. On the origin and phylogeny of polyploid wheat. Theor Apppl Genet 53:209–217Google Scholar
  22. Jiang J, Gill BS (1994) Different species-specific chromosome translocations in Triticum timopheevii and T. turgidum support the diphyletic origin of polyploid wheats. Chrom Research 2:59–64Google Scholar
  23. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227:680–685Google Scholar
  24. Lookhart GL, Albers LD, Beitz JA (1986) Comparison of polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses of gliadin polymorphism in the wheat cultivar Newton. Cereal Chem 63:497–500Google Scholar
  25. Lui CJ, Atkinson LD, Chinoy CN, Devos KM, Gale MD (1992) Nonhomoeologous translocations between group 4, 5 and 7 chromosomes within wheat and rye. Theor Appl Genet 83:305–312Google Scholar
  26. Morris KLD, Raupp WJ, Gill BS (1990) Isolation of Ht-genome chromosome additions from polyploid Elymus trachycaulus (StStHtHt) into common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Genome 33:16–22Google Scholar
  27. Narajno T (1990) Chromosome structure of durum wheat. Theor Appl Genet 79:397–400Google Scholar
  28. Naranjo T, Roca A, Giocoecha PG, Giraldz R (1987) Arm homoeology of wheat and rye chromosomes. Genome 29:873–882Google Scholar
  29. Nyquist NE (1962) Differential fertilization in the inheritance of stem rust resistance in hybrids involving a common whear strain derived from Triticum timopheevi. Genetics 47:1109–1124Google Scholar
  30. Ogihara Y, Tsunewaki K (1988) Diversity and evolution of chloroplast DNA in Triticum and Aegilops as revealed by restriction fragment analysis. Theor Appl Genet 76:321–332Google Scholar
  31. Sarkar P, Stebbins GL (1956) Morphological evidence concerning the origin of the B genome in wheat. Am J Bot 43:297–304Google Scholar
  32. Sears ER (1954) The aneuploids of common wheat. Research Bull 572, Univ of Missouri Agric Exp StationGoogle Scholar
  33. Sears ER (1966) Nullisomic-tetrasomic combinations in hexaploid wheat. In: Riley R, Lewis KR (eds) Chromosome manipulations and plant genetics. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh, Heredity (Suppl) 20:29–45Google Scholar
  34. Sears ER, Sears LM (1987) The telocentric chromosomes of common wheat. In: Ramanujam S (ed) Proc 5th Int Wheat Genet Symp. Indian Agricultural Institute, New Delhi, India, pp 389–407Google Scholar
  35. Shepherd KW, Islam AKMR (1988) Fourth compendium of wheat-alien chromosome lines. In: Miller TE, Koebner RMD (eds) Proc 7th Int Wheat Genet Symp. Bath. Press, Bath, UK, pp 1373–1395Google Scholar
  36. Takumi S, Nasuda S, Liu YG, Tsunewaki K (1993) Wheat phylogeny determined by RFLP analysis of nuclear DNA. 1. Einkorn wheat. Jpn J Genet 68:73–79Google Scholar
  37. Tsujimoto H (1995) Gametocidal genes in wheat and its relatives. IV. Functional relationships between six gametocidal genes. Genome 38:283–389Google Scholar
  38. Tsunewaki K (1995) Plasmon differentiation in Triticum and Aegilops revealed by the cytoplasmic effects on wheat genome manifestation. In: Raupp WJ, Gill BS (eds) Classical and molecular cytogenetic analysis. Proc U S-Japan Symp. Kansan Agric Exp Sta Rep 95:352-D, pp 38–48Google Scholar
  39. Yamamori M (1994) An N-band marker for gene Lr18 for resistance to leaf rust in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 89:643–646Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. L. Brown-Guedira
    • 1
  • E. D. Badaeva
    • 1
  • B. S. Gill
    • 1
  • T. S. Cox
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyThrockmorton Hall. Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.USDA-ARS, Agronomy Dept.Throckmorton Hall, Kansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

Personalised recommendations