Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Genetics

, Volume 86, Issue 2–3, pp 333–338 | Cite as

Genetic analysis of salinity tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

  • G. B. Gregorio
  • D. Senadhira
Article

Summary

The genetics of salinity tolerance in rice was investigated by a nine-parent complete diallel including reciprocals. Test materials involved susceptible (IR28, IR29, and MI-48), moderately tolerant (IR4595-4-1-13, IR9884-54-3-1E-P1, and IR10206-29-2-1), and tolerant (“Nona Bokra”, “Pokkali”, and SR26B) parents. Twoweek-old seedlings were grown in a salinized (EC = 12 dS/m) culture solution for 19 days under controlled conditions in the IRRI phytotron. Typical characteristics of salinity tolerance in rice were found to be Na+ exclusion and an increased absorption of K+ to maintain a good Na-K balance in the shoot. Genetic component analysis (GCA) revealed that a low Na-K ratio is governed by both additive and dominance gene effects. The trait exhibited overdominance, and two groups of genes were detected. Environmental effects were large, and the heritability of the trait was low. Our findings suggest that when breeding for salt tolerance, selection must be done in a later generation and under controlled conditions in order to minimize environmental effects. Modified bulk and single-seed descent would be the suitable breeding methods. Combining ability analysis revealed that both GCA and specific combining ability (SCA) effects were important in the genetics of salt tolerance. Moderately tolerant parents — e.g., IR4595-4-1-13 and IR9884-54-3-1E-P1 — were the best general combiners. Most of the best combinations had susceptible parents crossed either to moderate or tolerant parents. The presence of reciprocal effects among crosses necessitates the use of susceptible parents as males in hybridization programs. Large heterotic effects suggest the potential of hybrid rice for salt-affected lands.

Key words

Genetics Rice Salinity Tolerance Na-Kratio Diallel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Akbar M (1975) Water and chloride absorption in rice seedlings. J Agric Res 13:341–343Google Scholar
  2. Akbar M, Yabuno T (1975) Breeding for saline-resistant varieties of rice. III. Response of F1 hybrids to salinity in reciprocal crosses between “Jhona 349” and “Magnolia”. Jpn J Breed 25:215–220Google Scholar
  3. Akbar M, Khush GS, HilleRisLambers D (1985) Genetics of salt tolerance in rice. In: Rice Genetics. IRRI, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, pp 399–409Google Scholar
  4. Akbar M, Yabuno T (1977) Breeding for saline-resistant varieties of rice. IV. Inheritance of delayed-type panicle sterility induced by salinity. Jpn J Breed 27:237–240Google Scholar
  5. Akbar M, Yabuno T, Nakao S (1972) Breeding for saline resistant varieties of rice. 1. Variability for salt-tolerance among some rice varieties. Jpn J Breed 22:277–284Google Scholar
  6. Clarkson DT, Hanson JB (1980) The material nutrition of higher plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31:239Google Scholar
  7. Devitt D, Jarrell WM, Stevens KL (1981) Sodium-potassium ratios in soil solution and plant response under saline conditions. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45:80–86Google Scholar
  8. Griffing B (1956) Concept of general and specific combining ability in relation to diallel crossing systems. Aust J Biol Sci 9:463–493Google Scholar
  9. Hayman BI (1954) The theory and analysis of diallel crosses. Genetics 39:789–809Google Scholar
  10. Ikehashi H, Ponnamperuma FN (1978) Varietal tolerance to rice in adverse soils. In: Soils and rice. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, pp 801–823Google Scholar
  11. Iwaki S, Ota K, Ogo T (1953) Studies on the salt injury in rice plant. IV. The effects on the growth, heading and ripening of rice plants under varying concentrations of sodium chloride. Proc Crop Sci Jpn 22:13–14 (in Japanese, with English summary)Google Scholar
  12. Korbe SA, Abdel-Aal RM (1974) Effect of total salinity and type of salts on rice crop. Agric Res Rev 52:73–78Google Scholar
  13. Maas EV, Hoffman GH (1977) Crop salt tolerance-current assessment. J Irrig US Dep Agric Handb 60Google Scholar
  14. Moeljopawiro S, Ikehashi H (1981) Inheritance of salt tolerance in rice. Euphytica 30:291–300Google Scholar
  15. Mather K, Jinks JL (1982) Biometrical genetics, 3rd edn. Cambridge University Press, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Murty KS, Murty KS, Janardhan KV (1971) Physiological consideration for selection and breeding of varieties for saline and alkaline tracts. Oryza 8 [Suppl 2]:85–100Google Scholar
  17. Narayanan KK, Krishnaraj S, Sree Rangaswamy SR (1990) Genetic analysis for salt tolerance in rice. In: Rice Genetics II. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, Philippines, pp 167–173Google Scholar
  18. Ota K, Yasue T (1958) Studies on salt injury to crops. XV. The effect of sodium chloride solution on germination capacity of paddy seed. Proc Crop Sci Jpn 27:223–225Google Scholar
  19. Pearson GA (1959) Factors influencing salinity of submerged soils and growth of Caloro rice. Soil Sci 87:198–206Google Scholar
  20. Pearson GA (1961) The salt tolerance of rice. Int Rice Commun Newsl 10:1–4Google Scholar
  21. Ponnamperuma FN (1984) Role of cultivar tolerance in increasing rice production in saline lands. In: Staples RC, Toen-niessen GH (eds) Salinity tolerance in plants. Strategies for crop improvement. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 255–271Google Scholar
  22. Shimose N (1963) Physiology of salt injury in crops. I. Effect of iso-osmotic pressure due to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate on the growth and absorption of minimal elements by rice plants. J Sci Soil Tokyo 34:107–111Google Scholar
  23. Singh RK, Chaudhary BD (1979) Biometrical methods in quantitative genetic analysis. Kalyani Publ, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  24. Tagawa T, Ishizaka N (1963) Physiological studies on the tolerance of rice plants to salinity. Proc Crop Sci Soc Jpn 31:249–252Google Scholar
  25. Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (1984) Mechanisms of salinity resistance in rice and their role as physiological criteria in plant breeding. In: Staples RC, Toenniessen GH (eds) Salinity tolerance in plants strategies for crop improvement. John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp 151–170Google Scholar
  26. Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock JH, Gomez KA (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. IRRI, Los Banos, Laguna, PhilippinesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. B. Gregorio
    • 1
  • D. Senadhira
    • 1
  1. 1.International Rice Research InstituteManilaPhilippines

Personalised recommendations