Cybridization in Nicotiana tabacum L. using double inactivation of parental protoplasts and post-fusion selection based on nuclear-encoded and chloroplast-encoded marker genes
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An effective selection system preceded by double inactivation of parental protoplasts was used to transfer Nicotiana suaveolens Leh. cytoplasmic male sterility into a commercial tobacco (N. tabacum L.) breeding line. Mesophyll protoplasts from transformed plants of N. tabacum cultivar WZ2-3-1-1 possessing a neomycin phosphotransferase II gene were used as the nuclear donors, while those isolated from N. suaveolens plants carrying a chloroplast mutation for resistance to spectinomycin, induced using nitrosomethyl urea, were the cytoplasm donors in somatic cybridizations. Prior to fusion, nuclear donor protoplasts were inactivated with iodoacetamide or rhodamine 6G, while those of the cytoplasm donor were inactivated by X-irradiation. The resultant microcalli were cultured on a shoot regeneration medium containing both kanamycin and spectinomycin to select cybrids. Only regenerants that had typical characteristics of the N. tabacum cultivar were selected for transfer to the glasshouse. Four putative cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS) plants, out of a total of 44 regenerated plants transferred to the glasshouse, were obtained. Intraspecific somatic transfers of the CMS trait between N. tabacum cultivars with distinctlydifferent morphologies using single inactivation and nonselective shoot regeneration medium were demonstrated. The implications of the results for practical tobacco breeding as a means of circumventing lengthy backcrossing procedures are discussed.
Key wordsAgrobacterium Iodoacetamide Nicotiana protoplast fusion Nitrosomethyl urea Rhodamine 6G X-irradiation
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