Physics and Chemistry of Minerals

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 250–261 | Cite as

Defects and hydrolytic weakening in α-berlinite AlPO4 a structural analog of quartz

  • Bruno Boulogne
  • Patrick Cordier
  • Jean-Claude Doukhan


Berlinite, AlPO4, is a structural analog of quartz and a number of physical properties are very similar in both materials. It is thus interesting to compare their mechanical properties and investigate the possible role of water. Constant strain rate tests on wet synthetic crystals have been performed at room temperature and at 600 MPa confining pressure. They indicate that \((000){1 \mathord{\left/ {\vphantom {1 3}} \right. \kern-\nulldelimiterspace} 3}\langle 11\bar 20\rangle \) is the easy glide system. Detailled investigation of the crystal structure shows that the corresponding a dislocations can glide in such a way that only the weaker Al—O bonds are broken. This explains why this glide system is much more easily activated in berlinite than in quartz. Deformation experiments at higher temperature and at atmospheric pressure clearly show a thermally activated regime. However the actually available crystals are so rich in water that above 300° C the dislocation structure resulting from deformation is completely hidden by water precipitation and coarsening of the as-grown fluid inclusions. Like for wet quartz this later phenomenon generates numerous bubbles and sessile dislocation loops.


Precipitation Quartz Material Processing Fluid Inclusion Rate Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aines RD, Kirby SH, Rossman GR (1984) Hydrogen speciation in synthetic quartz. Phys Chem Minerals 11:204–212Google Scholar
  2. Aines RD, Rossman GR (1984) Water in minerals? A peak in the infrared. J Geophys Res 84:4059–4071Google Scholar
  3. Beran A (1986) A model of water allocation in alkali feldspars derived from infrared spectroscopy investigations. Phys Chem Minerals 13:306–310Google Scholar
  4. Boland JD, Tullis TE (1986) Deformation behaviour of wet and dry clinopyroxenite in the brittle to ductile transition region. In: Hobbs BE and Heard HC (eds) Mineral and rock deformation (Geophys Monograph N∘ 36) Am Geophys Union, Washington, pp 35–49Google Scholar
  5. Chai BHT, Hou JP (1987) Evaluation of berlinite grown at high temperature. Oral communication at First European Frequency and Time Forum, BesançonGoogle Scholar
  6. Cordier P, Boulogne B, Doukhan JC (1988) Water precipitation and diffusion in wet quartz and wet berlinite. Bull Mineral 111:113–137Google Scholar
  7. Cordier P, Doukhan JC (1989) Water in quartz; solubility and influence on ductility. Submitted to European J MineralogyGoogle Scholar
  8. Detaint J, Philippot E, Jumas JC, Schwartzel J, Zarka A, Capelle B, Doukhan JC (1985) Crystal growth, physical characterization and BAW device applications of berlinite. 39th Ann Freq Control Symp, pp 234–246Google Scholar
  9. Dodd DM, Fraser DB (1965) The 3000–3900 cm-1 absorption bands and anelasticity in crystalline α quartz. J Phys Chem Solids 26:673–686Google Scholar
  10. Dotsenko VI (1979) Stress relaxation in crystals. Phys Status Solidi (b) 93:11–43Google Scholar
  11. Doukhan JC, Boulogne B, Cordier P, Philippot E, Jumas JC, Toudic Y (1987) A transmission electron microscope study of lattice defects and water precipitation in α berlinite. J Cryst Growth 84:167–179Google Scholar
  12. Doukhan JC, Trepied L (1985) Plastic deformation of quartz single crystals. Bull Mineral 108:97–123Google Scholar
  13. Freund F, Oberheuser G (1986) Water dissolved in olivine; a single crystal infrared study. J Geophys Res 91:745–761Google Scholar
  14. Friedel J (1967) Dislocations. Pergamon Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Griggs DT (1967) Hydrolytic weakening of quartz and other silicates. Geophys J R Astron 14:19–31Google Scholar
  16. Griggs DT (1974) A model of hydrolytic weakening in quartz. J Geophys Res 79:1653–1661Google Scholar
  17. Griggs DT, Blacic JN (1965) Quartz, anomalous weakness of synthetic crystals. Science 147:292–295Google Scholar
  18. Halliburton LE, Kappers LA, Armington AF, Larkin J (1980) Radiation effects in synthetic berlinite (AlPO4). J Appl Phys 51:2193–2198Google Scholar
  19. Halliburton LE, Martin JJ (1985) Properties of piezoelectric materials. In Gerber EA, Ballato A (eds) Acoustic resonators and filters. Vol I, Academic Press, New York, pp 1–45Google Scholar
  20. Hirth J, Lothe J (1971) Theory of dislocations. McGraw Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Hirsch PB (1981) Plastic deformation and electronic mechanisms in semi conductors and insulators. J Physique C3:149–160Google Scholar
  22. Heggie MI (1984) The structure of dislocations, principally in silicon, inferred from experimental and theoretical results. In: Veyssiere P, Kubin L, Castaing J (eds) Dislocations 1984. Editions du CNRS, Paris, pp 305–314Google Scholar
  23. Heggie MI, Jones R (1986) Models of hydrolytic weakening in quartz. Philos Mag 53:L65-L70Google Scholar
  24. Hobbs BE (1985) The hydrolytic weakening effect in quartz. In: Schock (ed) Point defects in minerals (Monograph n∘ 31) Amer Geophys Union, Washington, pp 151–170Google Scholar
  25. Jumas JC, Goiffon A, Capelle B, Zarka A, Doukhan JC, Schwartzel J, Detaint J, Philippot E (1987) Crystal growth of berlinite AlPO4. Physical characterization and comparison with quartz. J Cryst Growth 80:133–148Google Scholar
  26. Kats A (1962) Hydrogen in α quartz. Philips Res Reports 17:133–279Google Scholar
  27. Kats A, Haven Y (1960) Infrared absorption bands in α quartz in the 3 μm region. Phys Chem Glasses 1:99–102Google Scholar
  28. Kirby SH, McCormick JW (1979) Creep of hydrolytically weakened synthetic quartz crystals oriented to promote 2110〈0001〉 slip. A brief summary of work to date. Bull Mineral 102:124–137Google Scholar
  29. Kolb ED, Laudise RA (1978) Hydrothermal synthesis of aluminium orthophosphate. J Cryst Growth 43:313–319Google Scholar
  30. Lefebvre A, François P, Di Persio J (1985) Transmission electron microscopy of semi insulating GaAs deformed at room temperature and under confining pressure. J Phys Lettres 46: L1023- L1030Google Scholar
  31. Lipson HG, Kahane A (1984) Distribution of aluminium and hydroxide defect centers in irradiated quartz. 38th Proc Ann Freq Control Symp, pp 10–15Google Scholar
  32. Lipson HG, Kahane A (1985) Infrared characterization of aluminium and hydrogen defect centers in irradiated quartz. J Appl Phys 58 (2): 963–970Google Scholar
  33. McLaren AC, Retchford JA (1969) TEM study of the dislocations in plastically deformed synthetic quartz. Phys Status Solidi (1969) 33:657–668Google Scholar
  34. McLaren AC, Retchford JA, Griggs DT, Christie JM (1967) TEM study of Brazil twins and dislocations experimentally produced in natural quartz. Phys Status Solidi 19:631–644Google Scholar
  35. McLaren AC, Cook RF, Hyde ST, Tobin RC (1983) The mechanisms of formation and growth of water bubbles and associated loops in synthetic quartz. Phys Chem Minerals 9:79–94Google Scholar
  36. Nutall RHD, Weil JA (1980) Two hydrogenic trapped hole species in α quartz. Solid State Commun 33:99–102Google Scholar
  37. Palache C, Berman H, Frondel C (1970) The Dana's system of mineralogy. Vol II, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Paterson MS (1982) The determination of hydroxyl by infrared absorption in quartz, silicate glasses and similar materials. Bull Mineral 105:20–29Google Scholar
  39. Rabier J, Veyssiere P, Demenet JL (1983) Plastic deformation of silicon at low temperature and the influence of doping. J Physique C4:243–253Google Scholar
  40. Stanley JM (1954) Hydrothermal synthesis of large aluminium phosphate crystals. Ind Eng Chem 46:1684–1689Google Scholar
  41. Steinberg RF, Roy MD, Estes AK, Chai BHT, Morris RC (1984) Propagation loss characteristics of berlinite. IEEE Symp Ultrasonics 279–284Google Scholar
  42. Van Tendeloo G, Van Landuyt J, Amelinckx S (1976) The α-β transition in quartz and AlPO4 as studied by electron microscopy and diffraction. Phys Status Solidi (a) 33:723–735Google Scholar
  43. Weil JA (1984) A review of electron spin spectroscopy and its application to the study of paramagnetic defects in crystalline quartz. Phys Chem Minerals 10:149–165Google Scholar
  44. Winkhaus B (1951) Die Kristallchemischen Beziehungen zwischen Aluminium Orthophosphat AlPO4 und Siliciumdioxyd SiO2. Neues Jahrb Mineral Abh 83:1–22Google Scholar
  45. Wood DL (1960) Infrared absorption of defects in quartz. J Phys Chem Solids 13:326–336Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bruno Boulogne
    • 1
  • Patrick Cordier
    • 1
  • Jean-Claude Doukhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Structure et Propriétés de l'Etat Solide (associated to C.N.R.S. n∘ 234)Université de Lille-Flandres-ArtoisVilleneuve d'Ascq CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations