Quality and Quantity

, Volume 5, Issue 2, pp 243–264 | Cite as

Social zoology and cultural differentiation

  • Stanisław Ossowski


Cultural Differentiation 
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  1. 1.
    The equivalent of “anthroposociology” analogous to “social zoology” would be “social anthropology”. The introduction of such a term, however, would cause confusion, since “social anthropology” has a connotation similar to “cultural anthropology”.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. C. Homans, Social Behaviour. Its Elementary Forms, New York, 1961.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    In a certain definition of language the expression “syntactic language” is a pleonasm, but the word “language” is sometimes used also to refer to non-syntactic systems of symbols such as road signs, or sound signals in certain species of birds.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. O. Hebb, W. R. Thompson, The Social Significance of Animal Studies, in G. Lindsay (ed.), Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. I, Cambridge, Mass., 1954.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    See: J. Hochfeld, Two Models of Humanization of Labour, “The Polish Sociological Bulletin”, 1–2 (1961).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    G. C. Homans, op. cit., p. 384.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Tinbergen, Social Behaviour in Animals, London, 1959, p. 64 and ff.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. O. Hebb, W. R. Thompson, op. cit., p. 558.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. Huizinga, Homo ludens, London, 1949, p. 47.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    These figures are taken from J. Dembowski, Psychologia małp, [Psychology of Apes], Warszawa, 1946, pp. 45–46.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    “Le signe instictif est un signe adhérent, le signe intelligent est un signe mobile”. H. Bergson, Évolution créatrice, Paris, 1928, p. 172.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    In birds as well as in some fishes (e. g. the species Hemichromis bimaculatus) it is customary for the parents to take turns in looking after the young. (see N. Tinbergen, Social Behaviour in Animals, London, 1959, p. 48).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Similarity of body structure that conditions certain modes of behaviour, may be characteristic of species that are very different from each other phylogenetically. For example, the body structure of the penguin (bird), dolphin (mammal) and many kinds of fishes enables these phylogenetically distant creatures to swim quickly and to dive. Zoologists call this convergence. The somatic equipment of the bat e. g. enables it to hunt, which is more characteristic of the swallow than the mouse.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Lévi-Strauss, La pensée sauvage, Paris, 1962, p. 157; I. R. Swanton, Social and Religious Beliefs and Usages of the Chicasaw Indians, Washington, 1928.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See: Levy-Brühl, Les fonctions mentales dans les sociétés inférieures, Paris, 1910.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    It is worth comparing this text with the quotation in the next footnote.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    “Attributing human thoughts to the pigeon, the observer is irresistibly drawn into saying: ‘The pigeon got mad when it did not get what it expected’. Or even: ‘The pigeon got mad when he did not get what he thought he deserved’” (Homans, op. cit., p. 73).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    E. Durkheim, Le suicide, étude de sociologie, Paris, 1897; M. Halbwachs, Les causes du suicide, Paris, 1930.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. Linton, Culture and Mental Disorders, p. 8.Google Scholar

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© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1971

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  • Stanisław Ossowski

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