Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 174, Issue 5, pp 551–557 | Cite as

Electrophysiological measurements of spectral mechanisms in the retinas of two cervids: white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and fallow deer (Dama dama)

  • G. H. Jacobs
  • J. F. DeeganII
  • J. Neitz
  • B. P. Murphy
  • K. V. Miller
  • R. L. Marchinton


Electroretinogram (ERG) flicker photometry was used to study the spectral mechanisms in the retinas of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and fallow deer (Dama dama). In addition to having a rod pigment with maximum sensitivity (λmax) of about 497 nm, both species appear to have two classes of photopic receptors. They share in common a short-wavelength-sensitive cone mechanism having λmax in the region of 450–460 nm. Each also has a cone having peak sensitivity in the middle wavelengths, but these differ slightly for the two species. In white-tailed deer the λmax of this cone is about 537 nm; for the fallow deer the average λmax value for this mechanism was 542 nm. Deer resemble other ungulates and many other types of mammal in having two classes of cone pigment and, thus, the requisite retinal basis for dichromatic color vision.

Key words

Cone photopigments Ungulate Deer Electroretinogram Dichromacy Odocoileus virginianus Dama dama 





long wavelength sensitive


middle wavelength sensitive


short wavelength sensitive


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. H. Jacobs
    • 1
  • J. F. DeeganII
    • 1
  • J. Neitz
    • 2
  • B. P. Murphy
    • 3
  • K. V. Miller
    • 3
  • R. L. Marchinton
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cell Biology and AnatomyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA
  3. 3.D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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