, Volume 96, Issue 3, pp 428–429 | Cite as

Topographical features of smokeless tobacco use

  • Dorothy K. Hatsukami
  • Robert M. Keenan
  • Deborah J. Anton
Rapid Communication


There is an increasing prevalence of smokeless tobacco use. However, very little descriptive information is available on the pattern of use. This study examines topographical features of smokeless tobacco use in a male college-age population (N=56). Subjects were required to use smokeless tobacco ad lib. for a period of 3 days. During this time, they were asked to record the time of onset and completion of each dip of smokeless tobacco. Smokeless tobacco use was significantly associated with time of day. The mean dips/day was 6.3 (SD±2.2), mean inter-dip interval was 102.6 (SD±42.1) min, mean duration/dip was 39.9 (SD±16.5) min, and mean total dip duration/day was 254.6 (SD±129.3) min. The mean grams of tobacco/dip was 1.97 (SD±0.96) and the total grams of tobacco used/day was 12.0 (SD±6.8) g. There were significant correlations between saliva cotinine and number of dips/day, mean duration/dip, total dip duration/day and mean inter-dip interval, suggesting that smokeless tobacco has the potential for producing dependence.

Key words

Smokeless tobacco Topography 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorothy K. Hatsukami
    • 1
  • Robert M. Keenan
    • 1
  • Deborah J. Anton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA

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