Cell and Tissue Research

, Volume 247, Issue 3, pp 605–612 | Cite as

Ultrastructure of the chemosensitive basiconic single-walled wall-pore sensilla on the antennae in adults and embryonic stages of Locusta migratoria L. (Insecta, Orthoptera)

  • Franz Ameismeier


The structure and embryonic development of the two types (A, B) of basiconic sensilla on the antennae of Locusta migratoria were studied in material that had been cryofixed and freeze-substituted, or chemically fixed and dehydrated. Both types are single-walled wall-pore sensilla. Type-A sensilla comprise 20–30 sensory and 7 enveloping cells. One enveloping cell (thecogen cell secretes the dendrite sheath); four are trichogen cells, projections of which form the trichogen process during the 2nd embryonic molt. The trichogen cells form two concentric pairs proximally. Two tormogen cells secrete the cuticular socket of the sensillum. The dendritic outer segments of the sensory cells are branched. Bifurcate type-A sensilla have also been observed. Type-B sensilla comprise three sensory and four enveloping cells (one thecogen, two trichogen and one tormogen). The trichogen process is formed by the two trichogen cells, each of which gives rise to two projections. The trichogen cells are concentrically arranged. The dendritic outer segments of the sensory cells are unbranched. In the fully developed sensillum, all trichogen and tormogen cells border on the outer receptor lymph cavity. It is suggested that the multicellular organization of the type-A sensilla can be regarded as being advanced rather than primitive.

Key words

Sensilla Development, ontogenetic Chemoreceptors Insect antennae Cryofixation Locusta migratoria (Insecta, Orthoptera) 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ameismeier F (1985) Embryonic development and molting of the antennal coeloconic no poreand double-walled wall pore sensilla in Locusta migratoria (Insecta, Orthopteroidea). Zoomorphology 105:356–366Google Scholar
  2. Barlow DI, Sleigh MA (1979) Freeze substitution for preservation of ciliated surfaces for scanning electron microscopy. J Microsc 115:81–95Google Scholar
  3. Chapman RF (1982) Chemoreception: The significance of receptor numbers. Adv Insect Physiol 16:247–355Google Scholar
  4. Ernst K-D (1972) Die Ontogenie der basiconischen Riechsensillen auf der Antenne von Necrophorus (Coleoptera). Z Zellforsch 129:217–236Google Scholar
  5. Glauert AM (1974) Fixation, dehydration and embedding of biological specimens. In: Glauert AM (ed) Practical methods in electron microscopy. Vol 3. North Holland/American Elsevier, Amsterdam Oxford New York, pp 1–207Google Scholar
  6. Gnatzy W (1978) Development of the filiform hairs on the cerci of Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria, Gryllidae). Cell Tissue Res 187:1–24Google Scholar
  7. Gnatzy W, Romer F (1984) Cuticle: Formation, moulting and control. In: Bereiter-Hahn J, Matoltsy AG, Richards KS (eds) Biology of the integument. Vol 1. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 638–684Google Scholar
  8. Greenwood M, Chapman RF (1984) Differences in numbers of sensilla on the antennae of solitarious and gregarious Locusta migratoria L (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Int J Insect Morphol Embryol 13:295–301Google Scholar
  9. Haug T (1985) Ultrastructure of the dendritic outer segments of sensory cells in poreless (“no-pore”) sensilla of insects. Cell Tissue Res 242:313–322Google Scholar
  10. Haug T, Altner H (1984a) A cryofixation study of presumptive hygroreceptors on the antennule of a terrestrial isopod. Tissue Cell 16:377–391Google Scholar
  11. Haug T, Altner H (1984b) A cryofixation study of a subcuticular receptor organ in the antennular tip of the terrestrial isopod, Porcellio scaber Latr (Crustacea). J Ultrastruct Res 87:62–74Google Scholar
  12. Keil T (1978) Die Makrochaeten auf dem Thorax von Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Calliphoridae, Diptera). Zoomorphologie 90:151–180Google Scholar
  13. Keil TA, Steinbrecht RA (1984) Mechanosensitive and olfactory sensilla of insects. Insect Ultrastruct 2:477–515Google Scholar
  14. Kuhbandner B (1984) Ultrastructure of ontogeny of the hair sensilla on the funicle of Calliphora erythrocephala (Insecta, Diplera). I The basiconical sensilla. Zoomorphology 104:373–385Google Scholar
  15. Lawrence PA (1966) Development and determination of hairs and bristles in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus. J Cell Sci 1:475–498Google Scholar
  16. Lee J-K, Altner H (1985) Sensory cell degeneration in the ontogeny of the chemosensitive sensilla in the labial palp-pit organ of the butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Cell Tissue Res 242:279–288Google Scholar
  17. Lee J-K, Selzer R, Altner H (1985) Lamellated outer dendritic segments of a chemoreceptor within wall-pore sensilla in the labial palp-pit organ of the butterfly, Pieris rapae L. (Insecta, Lepidoptera). Cell Tissue Res 240:333–342Google Scholar
  18. Martini R (1986) Fine structure and development of the large sensilla basiconica on the antennae of sphecid wasps. Tissue Cell 18:143–151Google Scholar
  19. Martini R, Schmidt K (1983) Cell degeneration during early development of hymenopteran olfactory sensilla. Tissue Cell 15:823–827Google Scholar
  20. Meinecke C-CH (1975) Riechsensillen und Systematik der Lamellicornia (Insecta, Coleoptera). Zoomorphologie 82:1–42Google Scholar
  21. Overton J (1966) Microtubules and microfibrils in morphogenesis of the scale cells of Ephestia kühniella. J Cell Biol 29:293–305Google Scholar
  22. Overton J (1967) The fine structure of developing bristles in wild type and mutant Drosophila melanogaster. J Morphol 122:367–380Google Scholar
  23. Schmidt K, Gnatzy W (1971) Die Feinstruktur der Sinneshaare auf den Cerci von Gryllus bimaculatus Deg (Saltatoria, Gryllidae). II Die Häutung der Faden- und Keulenhaare. Z Zellforsch 122:210–226Google Scholar
  24. Schmidt K, Kuhbandner B (1983) Ontogeny of the sensilla placodea on the antennae of Aulacus striatus Jurine (Hymenoptera, Aulacidae). Int J Insect Morphol Embryol 12:43–57Google Scholar
  25. Slifer EH, Prestage JJ, Beams HW (1959) The chemoreceptors and other sense organs on the antennal flagellum of the grasshopper (Orthoptera, Acrididae). J Morphol 105:145–191Google Scholar
  26. Steinbrecht RA (1980) Cryofixation without cryoprotectants. Freeze substitution and freeze etching of an insect olfactory receptor. Tissue Cell 12:73–100Google Scholar
  27. Steinbrecht RA (1982) Experiments on freezing damage with freeze substitution using moth antennae as test objects. J Microsc 125:187–192Google Scholar
  28. Steinbrecht RA, Gnatzy W (1984) Pheromone receptors in Bombyx mori and Antheraea pernyi. I Reconstruction of the cellular organization of the sensilla trichodea. Cell Tissue Res 235:25–34Google Scholar
  29. Stepper J, Becker C, Schmidt K (1983) Feinbau und Ontogenese der Porenplatten auf den Antennen von Pimpla turionellae (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae). Zoomorphology 102:11–32Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Franz Ameismeier
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Zoologie, Universität RegensburgRegensburgFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations