Mass recovery of malathion in simulated open field mosquito adulticide tests

  • N. S. Tietze
  • P. G. Hester
  • K. R. Shaffer
Article

Abstract

The mosquito adulticide, malathion [O, O-dimethyl S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl)phosphorodithioate] was studied in terms of deposition as a function of distance from the point of application in an open area. The parameters, mass deposited, droplet abundance, and droplet size (mass median diameter), were determined at distances 5, 25, 100, and 500 m from the spray head. Five separate tests yielded decreasing mass of malathion deposited with distance: i.e., 33.36, 16.75, 15.72, and 2.10 ng/cm2 were found at distances 5, 25, 100, and 500 m, respectively. Malathion mass deposited differed significantly between the 500 m site and the three closer sites (df=3; F-value=3.42; P<0.05). Although droplet abundance decreased with distance from the spray head, no significant differences were detected between distances. Significant differences in droplet size were found between the 500 m site and the remaining three sites using orthogonal contrast analysis (df=1; F-value=9.5; P=0.009). The validity of hypothetical estimates (assuming 100% deposition and homogeneous distribution within the target zone) was evaluated by comparison to field results. Compared to an expected field concentration of 577 ng/cm2, empirical data yielded a maximum of 33.4 ng/cm2 or 5.8% of the expected mass 5 m from the spray head.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstrong JA (1979) Effect of meteorological conditions on the deposit pattern of insecticides. Mosq News 39:10–13Google Scholar
  2. Cyanamid (1992) Cythion ULV. American Cyanamid Company, Agricultural Division, Vegetation and Pest Control, Wayne, NJGoogle Scholar
  3. Johnstone DR (1985) Physics and meteorology. In: Haskell PT (ed) Pesticide application: Princples and practice. Oxford Univ. Press, NYGoogle Scholar
  4. LaMer VK, Hochberg S, Hodges K, Wilson I, Fales JA, Latta R (1947) The influence of the particle size of homogeneous insecticidal aerosols on the mortality of mosquitoes in confined atmospheres. J Coll Sci 2:539–549Google Scholar
  5. Lofgren CS, Anthony DW, Mount GA (1973) Size of aerosol droplets impinging on mosquitoes as determined with a scanning electron microscope. J Econ Entomol 66:1085–1088Google Scholar
  6. Moore JC, Dukes JC, Clarke JR, Malone J, Hallmon CF, Hester PG (1993) Downwind drift and deposition of malathion on human targets from ground ultra-low volume mosquito sprays. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 9:138–142Google Scholar
  7. Mount GA (1970) Optimum size for adult mosquito control with space sprays or aerosols of insecticides. Mosq News 30:70–75Google Scholar
  8. Mount GA, Pierce NW (1972) Adult mosquito kill and droplet size of ultralow volume ground aerosols of insecticides. Mosq News 32:354–357Google Scholar
  9. Mulla MS, Mian LS, Kawecki JA (1981) Distribution, transport and fate of the insecticides malathion and parathion in the environment. Res Rev 81:1–172Google Scholar
  10. Rathburn CB Jr (1970) Methods of assessing droplet size of insecticidal sprays and fogs. Mosq News 30:501–513Google Scholar
  11. Tietze NS, Hester PG, Hallmon CF, Olson MA, Shaffer KR (1991) Acute toxicity of mosquitocidal compounds to young mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7:290–293Google Scholar
  12. Tietze NS, Ruff JP, Hallmon CF, Hester PG, Shaffer KR (1992) Effect of ULV malathion on automotive paint fisheries. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 8:241–246Google Scholar
  13. Tucker JW Jr, Thompson CQ, Wang TC, Lenahan RA (1987) Toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides to estuarine copepods and young fish after field applications. J Fla Anti-Mosq Assoc 58:1–6Google Scholar
  14. Wang T, Lenahan RA, Tucker JW Jr (1987) Deposition and persistence of aerially applied fenthion in a Florida estuary. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 38:226–231Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. S. Tietze
    • 1
  • P. G. Hester
    • 1
  • K. R. Shaffer
    • 1
  1. 1.John A. Mulrennan, Sr. Research LaboratoryFlorida Agricultural and Mechanical UniversityPanama CityUSA

Personalised recommendations