Space Science Reviews

, Volume 37, Issue 1–2, pp 63–109 | Cite as

Microinstabilities associated with a high Mach number, perpendicular bow shock

  • C. S. Wu
  • D. Winske
  • Y. M. Zhou
  • S. T. Tsai
  • P. Rodriguez
  • M. Tanaka
  • K. Papadopoulos
  • K. Akimoto
  • C. S. Lin
  • M. M. Leroy
  • C. C. Goodrich


The instabilities associated with a high Mach number perpendicular shock are reexamined in light of recent enhanced understanding of the Earth's bow shock. The insights provided by both the ISEE observations and hybrid simulations are reviewed and subsequently incorporated into the instability analyses. The discussion of the instabilities is divided according to their location in the shock layer. In the regions in front of and at the shock transition the cross-field instabilities are subdivided into low frequency modes (e.g. ion-ion streaming, kinetic cross-field streaming, drift lower hybrid instabilities) and high frequency modes (electron cyclotron drift, ion sound and electron whistler instabilities). Further downstream various ion ring-like and anisotropy driven instabilities are considered. In each case the instability analysis is reviewed and recent developments are emphasized. Implications of these results concerning the wave signatures and plasma heating and acceleration are also discussed.


Shock Layer Hybrid Simulation High Frequency Mode Lower Hybrid Instability Analysis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akimoto, K., Papadopoulos, K., and Winske, D.:1983a, submitted to J. Plasma Phys..Google Scholar
  2. Akimoto, K., Papadopoulos, K., and Winske, D.: 1983b, submitted to J. Plasma Phys. Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, R. R., Parks, G. K., Eastman, T. E., Gurnett, D. A., and Frank L. A.: 1981, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 4493.Google Scholar
  4. Auer, P. L., Kilb, R. W., and Crevier, W. F.: 1971, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 2927.Google Scholar
  5. Bertotti, B. and Biskamp, D.: 1969, ‘Proceeding of a Study Group on Collisionfree Shocks in the Laboratory and Space’, held at ESRIN, Frascatti, Italy, ESRO Spec. Pap. SP-51, p. 41.Google Scholar
  6. Biskamp, D.: 1973, Nuclear Fusion 13, 419.Google Scholar
  7. Camac, M., Kantrowitz, A. R., Litvak, M. M., Patrick R. M., and Petschek, H. E.: 1962, Nuclear Fusion, Suppl. Part 2.Google Scholar
  8. Davidson, R. C. and Gladd, N. T.: 1975, Phys. Fluids 18, 1327.Google Scholar
  9. Davidson, R. C. and Ogden J. M.: 1975, Phys. Fluids 18, 1045.Google Scholar
  10. Davidson, R. C., Gladd, N. T., Wu, C. S., and Huba, J. D.: 1977, Phys. Fluids 20, 307.Google Scholar
  11. Dory, R. A., Guest, G. E., and Harris, E. G.: 1965, Phys. Rev. Letters 14, 131.Google Scholar
  12. Drake, J. F. and Lee, T. T.: 1981, Phys. Fluids 24, 1115.Google Scholar
  13. Dum, C. T., Marsch, E., and Pilipp, W.: 1980 J. Plasma Phys. 23, 91.Google Scholar
  14. Edmiston, J. P., Kennel, C. F., and Eichler, D.: 1982, Geophys. Res. Letters 9, 531.Google Scholar
  15. Fairfield, D. H.: 1974, J. Geophys. Res. 79, 1368.Google Scholar
  16. Feldman, W. C., Bame, S. J., Gary, S. P., Gosling, J. T., McComas, D., Thomsen, M. F., Paschmann, G., Sckopke, N., Hoppe, M. M., and Russell, C. T.: 1982, Phys. Rev. Letters 49, 199.Google Scholar
  17. Fishman, F. J., Kantrowitz, A. R., Petschek H. E.: 1960, Rev. Mod. Phys. 32, 959.Google Scholar
  18. Formisano, V.: 1977, J. Phys. 38, C6–65.Google Scholar
  19. Formisano, V. and Torbert, R.: 1982, Geophys. Res. Letters 9, 207.Google Scholar
  20. Forslund, D. W., Morse, R. L., and Nielson, C. W.: 1970, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 1266.Google Scholar
  21. Fredricks, R. W., Crook, G. M., Kennel, C. F., Green, I. M., Scarf, F. L., Coleman, P. J., Jr., and Russell C. T.: 1970 J. Geophys. Res. 75, 3751.Google Scholar
  22. Fung, S., Papadopoulos K., and Wu, C. S.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 8077.Google Scholar
  23. Gary, S. P. and Sanderson, J. J.: 1970, J. Plasma Phys. 4, 739.Google Scholar
  24. Gary, S. P. and Gary, S. P.: 1972, J. Plasma Phys. 7, 417.Google Scholar
  25. Gladd, N. T., Goren, Y., Liu, C. S., and Davidson R. C.: 1977, Phys. Fluids 20, 1876.Google Scholar
  26. Greenstadt, E. W. and Fredricks R. W.: 1974, in B. M. McCormack Magnetospheric Physics, D. Reidel Publ. Co., Dordrecht, Holland, p. 281.Google Scholar
  27. Greenstadt, E. W. and Fredericks, R. W.: 1979, in Lanzerotti, Kennel, and Parker (eds.), Solar System Plasma Physics, Vol. III, North-Holland Publ. Co., p. 3.Google Scholar
  28. Greenstadt, E. W., Russell, C. T., Gosling, J. T., Bame, S. J., Paschmann, G., Parks, G. K., Anderson, K. A., Scarf, F. L., Anderson, R. R., Gurnett, D. A. Lin, R. P., Lin, C. S., and Reme, H.: 1980, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 2124.Google Scholar
  29. Greenstadt, E. W., Fredricks, R. W., Russell, C. T., Scarf, F. L., Anderson, R. R., and Gurnett, D. A.: 1981, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 4511.Google Scholar
  30. Guha, J. K., Judge, D. L., and Marburger, J. H.: 1972, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 604.Google Scholar
  31. Heppner, J. P., Sugiura, M., Skillman, T. L., Ledley, B. G., and Campbell, M.: 1967, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5417.Google Scholar
  32. Hsia, J. B., Chiu, S. M., Hsia, M. F., Chou, R. L., and Wu, C. S.: 1979, Phys. Fluids 22, 1737.Google Scholar
  33. Huba, J. D. and Wu, C. S.: 1976, Phys. Fluids 19, 988.Google Scholar
  34. Kellog, P.J.: 1964, Phys. Fluids 7,1555.Google Scholar
  35. Kennel, C. F. and Petschek H. E.: 1966, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 1.Google Scholar
  36. Krall, N. A. and Liewer P. C.: 1971, Phys. Rev. A4, 2094.Google Scholar
  37. Lampe, M., Manheimer, W. M., McBride, J. B., Orens, J. H., Papadopoulos, K., Shanny, R., and Sudan, R. N.: 1972, Phys Fluids 15, 662.Google Scholar
  38. Lashmore-Davies, C. N.: 1971, Phys. Fluids 14, 1481.Google Scholar
  39. Lee, J. K. and Birdsall, C. K.: 1979, Phys. Fluids 22, 1306; 22, 1315.Google Scholar
  40. Lemons, D. S. and Gary, S. P.: 1977, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 2337.Google Scholar
  41. Lemons, D. S. and Gary, S. P.: 1978, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 1625.Google Scholar
  42. Leroy, M. M.: 1983, Phys. Fluids 26 (in press).Google Scholar
  43. Leroy, M. M., Goodrich, C. C., Winske, D., Wu, C. S., and Papadopoulos, K.: 1981, Geophys. Res. Letters 8, 1269.Google Scholar
  44. Leroy, M. M., Winske, D., Goodrich, C. C., Wu, C. S., and Papadopoulos, K.: 1982, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 5081.Google Scholar
  45. McBride, J. B. and Ott, E.: 1972, Phys. Letters 39A, 363.Google Scholar
  46. McBride, J. B., Ott, E., Boris, J. P., and Orens, J. H.: 1972, Phys. Fluids 15, 2367.Google Scholar
  47. Mikhailovskii, A. B.: 1974, Theory of Plasma Instabilities, Vol. 1, Consultant Bureau, New York, p. 235.Google Scholar
  48. Montgomery, M. D., Asbridge, J. R., and Bame, S. J.: 1970, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 1217.Google Scholar
  49. Mynick, H. E., Gerver, M. J., and Birdsall, C. K.: 1977, Phys. Fluids 20, 606.Google Scholar
  50. Ness, N. F., Searce, C. S., and Seek, H. B.: 1964, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3531.Google Scholar
  51. Olson, J. V., Holzer, R. E., and Smith, E. J.: 1969, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4601.Google Scholar
  52. Papadopoulos K.: 1971, J. Geophys. Res. 76, 3806.Google Scholar
  53. Papadopoulos, K.: 1981a, Proc. of the 1981 Varen⊙ana school of Astrophysics, (ESA SP-161), p. 89.Google Scholar
  54. Papadopoulos, K.: 1981b, Proc. of the 1981 Varenna school of Astrophysics, (ESA SP-161), p. 161.Google Scholar
  55. Papadopoulos, K., Davidson, R. C., Dawson, J. M., Haber, I., Hammer, D. A., Krall, N. A., and Shanny, R.: 1971, Phys. Fluids 14, 849.Google Scholar
  56. Parks, G. K., Greenstadt, E., Wu, C. S., Lin, C. S., St. More, A., Lin, R. P., Anderson, K. A., Gurgiolo, C., Mauk, B., Reme, H., Anderson, R. R., and Eastman, T.: 1981, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 4343.Google Scholar
  57. Paschmann, G., Sckopke, N., Asbridge, J. R., Bame, S. J., and Gosling, J. T.: 1981a, J. Geophys. Res. 85, 4689.Google Scholar
  58. Paschmann, G., Sckopke, N., Papamastorakis, I., Asbridge, J. R., Bame, S. J., and Gosling, J. T.: 1981b, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 4355.Google Scholar
  59. Paschmann, G., Sckopke, Bame, S. J., and Gosling, J. T.: 1982, Geophys. Res. Letters 9, 881.Google Scholar
  60. Paul, J. W. M.: 1970, in B. J. Rye and J. C. Taylor, Physics of Hot Plasmas, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  61. Petschek, H. E.: 1958, Rev. Mod. Phys. 30, 966.Google Scholar
  62. Priest, E. R. and Sanderson, J. J.: 1972, Plasma Phys. 14, 951.Google Scholar
  63. Rodriguez, P. and Gurnett D. A.: 1975, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 19.Google Scholar
  64. Rodriguez, P. and Gurnett D. A.: 1976, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2871.Google Scholar
  65. Scharer, J. E. and Trivelpiece, A. W.: 1967, Phys. Fluids 10, 591.Google Scholar
  66. Scudder, J. D., Mangeney, A., Gosling, J. T., Paschmann, G., Wu, C. S., Russell, C. T., Rodriguez, P., Anderson, R. R., Bame, S. J., Filzenreiter, R. J., Harvey, C., Hoppe, M., Lacombe, J., Ogilvie, K. W., and Sckopke, N.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. (submitted).Google Scholar
  67. Smith, E. J., Holzer, R. H., McLeod, M. G., and Russell, C. T.: 1967, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4803.Google Scholar
  68. Sonnerup, B.U.O.: 1969, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 1301.Google Scholar
  69. Stringer, T. E.: 1964, Plasma Phys. 6, 267.Google Scholar
  70. Tajima, T., Mima, K., and Dawson, J. M.: 1977, Phys. Rev. Letters 39, 201.Google Scholar
  71. Tanaka, M., Goodrich, C. C., Winske, D.,: Papadopoulos, K.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, in press.Google Scholar
  72. Tidman, D. A.: 1967, Phys. Fluids 10, 547.Google Scholar
  73. Tidman, D. A. and Krall, N. A.: 1971, Shock Waves in Collisionless Plasmas, Wiley-Interscience, New York.Google Scholar
  74. Tsurutani, B. T. and Rodriguez, P.: 1981, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 4319.Google Scholar
  75. Varvoglis, H. and Papadopoulos, K.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, in press.Google Scholar
  76. Völk, H. J.: 1970, in B. J. Rye and J. C. Taylor (eds.), Physics of Hot Plasma, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  77. Wong, H. V.: 1970, Phys. Fluids 13, 757.Google Scholar
  78. Wu, C. S.: 1982, Space Sci. Rev. 32, 83.Google Scholar
  79. Wu, C. S. and Fredricks, R. W.: 1972, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5585.Google Scholar
  80. Wu, C.S. Gaffey, Jr., J. D., and Liberman B.: 1981a, J. Plasma Phys. 25, 391.Google Scholar
  81. Wu, C. S., Lin, C. S., and Wong, H. K.: 1981b, Geophys. Res. Letters 8, 393.Google Scholar
  82. Wu, C. S., Zhou, Y. M., Tsai, S.T., Guo, S. C., Winske, D., and Papadopoulos, K.: 1983, Phys Fluids 26 in press.Google Scholar
  83. Zhou, Y. M. and Wu, C. S.: 1982a, Acta Phys. Sinica, submitted.Google Scholar
  84. Zhou, Y. M. and Wu, C. S.: 1982b, submitted to Phys. Fluids. Google Scholar
  85. Zhou, Y. M., Wong, H. K., Wu, C. S., Winske, D.: 1983, J. Geophys. Res. 88, in press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. S. Wu
    • 1
  • D. Winske
    • 2
  • Y. M. Zhou
    • 1
    • 3
  • S. T. Tsai
    • 1
    • 3
  • P. Rodriguez
    • 4
  • M. Tanaka
    • 1
  • K. Papadopoulos
    • 2
  • K. Akimoto
    • 2
  • C. S. Lin
    • 5
  • M. M. Leroy
    • 1
    • 6
  • C. C. Goodrich
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Physical Science and TechnologyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Physics and AstronomyUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA
  3. 3.Institute of PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.Naval Research LaboratoryWashington, DCUSA
  5. 5.Southwest Research InstituteSan AntonioUSA
  6. 6.Observatoire de ParisDESPAMeudonFrance

Personalised recommendations