Journal of Comparative Physiology A

, Volume 172, Issue 5, pp 583–591 | Cite as

Three modes of spatiotemporal preprocessing by eyes

  • J. H. van Hateren
Article

Abstract

  1. 1.

    Optimal spatiotemporal filters for early vision were computed as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and α, a parameter defined as the ratio of the width of the probability distribution of velocities as perceived by the naturally behaving animal, and the characteristic velocity of the photoreceptors (the velocity required to move across a receptor's receptive field in a receptor's integration time). Animals that move slowly, on average, compared with the characteristic velocity of their photoreceptors have α ≪ 1, animals that move fast have α ≫ 1.

     
  2. 2.

    For α ≪ 1, the temporal part of the optimal filter adapts more to different SNRs (light levels) than the spatial part, leading to large adjustments in temporal resolving power and strong self-inhibition at high SNR, but little lateral inhibition.

     
  3. 3.

    For α ≫ 1, the spatial part of the filter adapts more strongly than the temporal part, leading to strong lateral inhibition at high SNR, and little self-inhibition.

     
  4. 4.

    For α ≈ 1, both spatial and temporal properties change about equally much when varying SNR.

     
  5. 5.

    Varying the width of the angular sensitivity of the photoreceptors shows that for every combination of α and SNR there is an optimal width. Visual systems with large α need wider angular sensitivities, in particular at low SNR, in order to reach the information maximum than visual systems with small α.

     

Key words

Natural images Spatiotemporal filtering Adaptation Eye design 

Abbreviations

LMC

Large Monopolar Cell

SNR

signal-to-noise ratio

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Autrum H (1950) Die Belichtungspotentiale und das Sehen der Insekten (Untersuchungen an Calliphora und Dixippus). Z Vergl Physiol 32:176–227Google Scholar
  2. Autrum H (1984) Comparative physiology of invertebrates: hearing and vision. In: Dawson WW, Enoch JM (eds) Foundations of sensory science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1–23Google Scholar
  3. Burton GJ, Moorhead IR (1987) Color and spatial structure in natural scenes. Appl Opt 26:157–170Google Scholar
  4. Derrington AM, Lennie P (1982) The influence of temporal frequency and adaptation level on receptive field organization of retinal ganglion cells in cat. J Physiol (Lond) 333:343–366Google Scholar
  5. Field DJ (1987) Relations between the statistics of natural images and the response properties of cortical cells. J Opt Soc Am A 4:2379–2394Google Scholar
  6. Glantz RM (1991) Motion detection and adaptation in crayfish photoreceptors. J Gen Physiol 97:777–797Google Scholar
  7. Hateren JH van (1992a) Theoretical predictions of spatiotemporal receptive fields of fly LMCs, and experimental validation. J Comp Physiol A 171: 157–170Google Scholar
  8. Hateren JH van (1992b) Real and optimal neural images in early vision. Nature 360:68–70CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Hateren JH van (1992c) A theory of maximizing sensory information. Biol Cybern 68:23–29Google Scholar
  10. Hateren JH van (1993) Spatiotemporal contrast sensitivity of early vision. Vision Res 33:257–267CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Howard J (1981) Temporal resolving power of the photoreceptors of Locusta migratoria. J Comp Physiol 144:61–66Google Scholar
  12. Howard J, Snyder AW (1983) Transduction as a limitation on compound eye function and design. Proc R Soc Lond B 217:287–307Google Scholar
  13. Laughlin SB (1981) Neural principles in the visual system. In: Autrum H (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/6 B. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 133–280Google Scholar
  14. Laughlin SB, Weckström M (1993) Fast and slow photoreceptors — a comparative study of the functional diversity of coding and conductances in the Diptera. J Comp Physiol A 172:593–609Google Scholar
  15. Lillywhite PG, Laughlin SB (1979) Transducer noise in a photoreceptor. Nature 277:569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Snyder AW (1979) Physics of vision in compound eyes. In: Autrum H (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/6 A. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 225–313Google Scholar
  17. Srinivasan MV, Bernard GD (1975) The effect of motion on visual acuity of the compound eye: a theoretical analysis. Vision Res 15:515–525CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Srinivasan MV, Laughlin SB, Dubs A (1982) Predictive coding: a fresh view of inhibition in the retina. Proc R Soc Lond B 216:427–459PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. H. van Hateren
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations