Bioaccumulation of vanadium and other trace metals in livers of Alaskan cetaceans and pinnipeds

  • E. A. Mackey
  • P. R. Becker
  • R. Demiralp
  • R. R. Greenberg
  • B. J. Koster
  • S. A. Wise
Article

Abstract

Concentrations for 38 elements are routinely measured in the marine mammal liver tissues archived in the National Biomonitoring Specimen Bank (NBSB). Results show that hepatic concentrations of vanadium, selenium, silver, cadmium, and mercury are positively correlated with age for beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) and of vanadium, selenium, cadmium, and mercury with length for ringed seals (Phoca hispada). Many researchers have reported linear correlations of hepatic selenium, cadmium, and mercury with marine mammal age; however, there is only one other report of a linear correlation of hepatic vanadium with marine mammal age. Vanadium levels are at or below detection limits (⩽0.01 μg/g) in liver tissues of U.S. east coast marine mammals from the NBSB but are present at levels ranging from 0.02 to 1.2 μg/g of wet weight in the tissues of Alaskan marine mammals. Although only three bearded seal (Eriganthus barbatus) and three bow-head whale (Balaena mysticetus) liver samples have been analyzed, hepatic vanadium levels also increased with animal size for these species. The presence of relatively high levels of vanadium in the livers of these Alaskan animals may reflect a unique dietary source of vanadium, a unique geochemical source of vanadium, or anthropogenic input to the Alaskan marine environment.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alvarez CE, Fernández M, Pérez N, Iglesias E, Snelling R (1993) Effect of fly ash from a fuel oil power station on heavy metal content of wild plants at Tenerife Island, the Canarian Archipelago, Spain. J Environ Sci Health A28:269–283Google Scholar
  2. Becker PR, Manen CA (1989) Natural oil seeps in the Alaskan marine environment. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, OCSEAP Final Reports of Principal Investigators, 62:1–126Google Scholar
  3. Becker PR, Wise SA, Koster BJ, Zeisler R (1991) Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Revised Collection Protocol. NIST Interagency Report 4529. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MDGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker PR, Mackey EA, Schantz MM, Demiralp R, Greenberg RR, Koster BJ, Wise SA, Muir DCG (1995a) Concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons, heavy metals and other elements in tissues banked by the Alaska Marine Mammal Archival Project. NIST Interagency Report 5620. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MDGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker PR, Mackey EA, Demiralp R, Suydam R, Early G, Koster B J,Wise SA (1995b) Relationship of silver to selenium and mercury in the liver tissue of two species of toothed whales (Odontocetes). Marine Poll Bull 30:262–271Google Scholar
  6. Blumenthal NC, Cosma V (1989) Inhibition of apatite formation by titanium and vanadium ions. J Biomed Mater Res 23:13–22Google Scholar
  7. Boehm P, Steinhauer M, Crecelius E, Neff J, Tuckfield C (1987) Beaufort Sea Monitoring Program: Analysis of trace metals and hydrocarbons from outer continental shelf (OCS) activities. Final Report to Minerals Management Service. Battelle Ocean Sciences, Duxbury, Massachusetts, MMS 87–0072, 261 pGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourgoin BP, Risk MJ (1987) Vanadium contamination monitored by an Arctic bivalve, Cyrtodaria kurriana. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 39:1063–1068Google Scholar
  9. Bratton GR, Spainhour CB, Flory W, Reed M, Jayko J (1993) Presence and potential effects of contaminants. In: Burns JJ, Montague JJ, Cowles CJ (eds) The Bowhead Whale, Special Publication Number 2. The Society for Marine Mammalogy, p 701–744Google Scholar
  10. Braune BM, Norstrom RJ, Wong MP, Collins BT, Lee J (1991) Geographical distribution of metals in livers of polar bears from the Northwest Territories, Canada. Sci Total Environ 100:283–299Google Scholar
  11. Brodie PF (1969) Mandibular layering in Delphinapterus leucas and age determination. Nature 221:956–958Google Scholar
  12. Byrne C, Balasuramanian R, Overton EB, Albert TF (1985) Concentrations of trace metals in the bowhead whale. Marine Poll Bull 16:497–498Google Scholar
  13. Calkins DG (1983) Marine mammals of lower Cook Inlet and the potential for impact from outer continental shelf oil and gas exploration, development and transport. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, NOAA, OCSEAP Final Rep 20, p 171–265Google Scholar
  14. Campbell JA, Loring DH (1980) Baseline levels of heavy metals in the waters and sediments of Baffin Bay. Marine Poll Bull 11:257–261Google Scholar
  15. Dietz R, Nielsen CO, Hansen MM, Hansen CT (1990) Organic mercury in Greenland birds and mammals. Sci Total Environ 95:41–51Google Scholar
  16. Doidge DW (1990) Age-length and length weight comparisons in the beluga, Delphinapterus leucas. Can Bull Fish Aquat Sci 224:59–68Google Scholar
  17. Eady RR (1990) Vanadium nitrogenases. In: Chasteen ND (ed), Vanadium in Biological Systems. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 99–127Google Scholar
  18. Falconer CR, Davies IM, Topping G (1983) Trace metals in the common harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. Marine Environ Res 8:119–127Google Scholar
  19. Fay FH, Feder HM, Stoker SW (1977) An estimation of the impact of the Pacific walrus population on its food resources in the Bering Sea. Mar Mamm Comm Rep MMC-75/06, 75/03Google Scholar
  20. Frank A, Galgan V, Roos A, Olsson M, Petersson LR, Bignert A (1992) Metal concentrations in seals from Swedish waters. Ambio 21:529–538Google Scholar
  21. Gaskin DE, Ishida K, Frank R (1972) Mercury in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) from the Bay of Fundy. J Fish Res Board of Canada 29:1644–1645Google Scholar
  22. Gardner JV, Vallier TL, Dean WE (1978) Grain size, total carbon, mineralogy, and inorganic geochemical data from surface sediments of the southern Bering Sea outer continental shelf. U. S. Geological Survey, Open File Report 78–923, 7 pGoogle Scholar
  23. Goren AD, Brodie PF, Spotte S, Ray GC, Kaufman HW, Gwinnet AJ, Sciubba JJ, Buck JD (1987) Growth layer groups (GLGs) in the teeth of the adult beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) of known age: evidence for two annual layers. Marine Mam Sci 3:14–21Google Scholar
  24. Hammond CR (1986) The Elements. In CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 63rd Edition. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL, p B-46Google Scholar
  25. Hansen CT, Nielsen CO, Dietz R, Hansen MM (1990) Zinc, cadmium, mercury, and selenium in minke whales, belugas and narwhals from West Greenland. Polar Biol 10:529–539Google Scholar
  26. Hill CH (1990) Interaction of vanadate and chloride in chicks; the effect of dietary mercury on vanadate toxicity in the chick; the effect of dietary copper on vanadate toxicity in chicks. Biol Trace Elem Res 23:1–23Google Scholar
  27. Hughes JA, Holba HG (1988) Relationship between crude oil quality and biomarker patterns. Org Geochem 13(1–3):15Google Scholar
  28. Julshamn K, Andersen A, Ringdal O, Morkore J (1987) Trace elements intake in the Faroe Islands I. Element levels in edible parts of pilot whales (Globicephala melaenus). Sci Total Environ 65:53–62Google Scholar
  29. Kasuya T, Sergeant DE, Tanaka K (1988) Re-examination of life history parameters of long-finned pilot whales in the Newfoundland waters. Sci Rep Whales Res Inst 39:103–119Google Scholar
  30. Koeman JH, de Ven W M, de Goeij JJM, Tjioe PS, van Haaften JL (1975) Mercury and selenium in marine mammals and birds. Sci Total Environ 3:279–287Google Scholar
  31. Koster BJ, Wise SA, Becker PR (1995) Alaska Marine Mammal Tissue Archival Project: Specimen Inventory. NIST Interagency Report 5462. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Gaithersburg, MD, p 70Google Scholar
  32. Law RJ, Jones R, Barker JR, Kennedy S, Milne R, Morris RJ (1992) Trace metals in the livers of marine mammals from the Welsh coast and the Irish Sea. Marine Poll Bull 24:296–304Google Scholar
  33. Lide M (ed) (1993) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 74th Edition. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, FL, p 149Google Scholar
  34. Lillestolen TI, Foster N, Wise SA (1993) Development of the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank. Sci Total Environ 139/140:97–10Google Scholar
  35. Mackey EA, Demiralp R, Becker PR, Greenberg RR, Koster BJ, Wise SA (1995) Trace element concentrations in cetacean liver tissues archived in the National Marine Mammal Tissue Bank. Sci Total Environ 175:25–41Google Scholar
  36. Malcolm H, Boyd IL, Osborn D, French MC, Freestone P (1994) Trace metals in Antacrtic fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella) livers from Bird Island, South Georgia. Marine Poll Bull 28:375–380Google Scholar
  37. Marcovecchio JE, Moreno VJ, Pérez A (1991) Metal accumulations in tissues of sharks from the Bahía Blanca Estuary, Argentina. Marine Environ Res 31:263–274Google Scholar
  38. Meador JP, Varanasi U, Robisch PA, Chan S-L (1993) Toxic metals in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from strandings in 1986 and 1990 on Cape Cod, MA. Canadian J Fish Aquatic Sci 50:2698–2706Google Scholar
  39. Merritt K, Margevicius RW, Brown SA (1992) Storage and elimination of titanium, aluminum, and vanadium salts in vivo. J Biomed Mater Res 26:1503–1515Google Scholar
  40. Michibata H, Sakuri H (1990) Vanadium in ascidians. In: Chasteen ND (ed) Vanadium in Biological Systems, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 152–171Google Scholar
  41. Muir DCG, Wagemann R, Grift NP, Norstrom RJ, Simon M, Lien J (1988) Organochlorine chemical and heavy metal contaminants in white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris) and pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the coast of Newfoundland, Canada. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 17:613–629Google Scholar
  42. Murillo M, Chirinos J (1994) Use of emulsion systems for the determination of sulfur, nickel and vanadium in heavy crude oil samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. J Anal Atomic Spectrom 9:237–240Google Scholar
  43. Nielsen FH, Uthus EO (1990) The essentiality and metabolism of vanadium. In: Chasteen ND (ed) Vanadium in Biological Systems, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 51–62Google Scholar
  44. Norstrom RJ, Schweinsberg RE, Colins BT (1986) Heavy metals and essential elements in livers of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic. Sci Total Environ 48:195–212Google Scholar
  45. Parker RDR, Sharma RP (1978) Accumulation and depletion of vanadium in selected tissues of rats treated with vanadyl sulfate and sodium orthovanadate. J Environ Pathol Toxicol 2:235–245Google Scholar
  46. Rahn KA (1981) The Mn/V ratio as a tracer of large scale sources of pollution aerosol for the Arctic. Atmos Environ 15:1457–1464Google Scholar
  47. Robertson DE, Abel KH (1979) Natural distribution and environmental background of trace metals in Alaskan shelf and estuarine areas. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, Environmental Assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf, Annual Reports 5:660–698Google Scholar
  48. Seaman GA, Frost KJ, Lowry LF, Burns JJ (1986) Investigations of beluga whales in coastal waters of western and northern Alaska. U.S. Dept. Commerce, NOAA, OCSEAP Final Rep 56, p 153–391Google Scholar
  49. Shechter Y, Meyerovitch J, Farfel Z, Sack J, Bruck R, Bar-Meir S, Amir S, Degani H, Karlish SJD (1990) Insulin mimetic effects of vanadium. In: Chasteen ND (ed) Vanadium in Biological Systems, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 129–142Google Scholar
  50. Stoecker BJ, Hopkinse LL (1984) Vanadium. In: E. Frieden (ed.) Biochemistry of the Essential Ultratrace Elements, Plenum Press, NY, p 239–256Google Scholar
  51. Taylor BN, Kuyatt CE (1993) Guidelines for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty of NIST measurement results. NIST Technical Note 1297, U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Gaithersburg, MD, p 20Google Scholar
  52. Teigen SW, Skaare JU, Bjorge A, Degre E, Sand G (1993) Mercury and selenium in harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in NOrwegian waters. Environ Toxicol Chem 12:1251–1259Google Scholar
  53. Vermette SJ, Bingham VG (1986) Trace elements in Frobisher Bay rainwater. Arctic 39:177–179Google Scholar
  54. Wagemann R, Stewart REA, Béland P, Desjardins C (1990) Heavy metals and selenium in tissues of beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, from the Canadian Arctic and the St. Lawrence Estuary. Canadian Bull Fish Aquat Sci 224:191–206Google Scholar
  55. Warburton J, Seagars DJ (1993) Heavy metal concentrations in liver and kidney tissues of Pacific walrus: continuation of a baseline study. USFWS Technical Report R7/MMM93-1, Anchorage, p 23Google Scholar
  56. Wever R, Krenn BE (1990) Vanadium haloperoxidases. In: N. D. Chasteen (ed) Vanadium in Biological Systems, Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 81–97Google Scholar
  57. Wide M (1984) Effect of short-term exposure to five industrial metals on the embryonic and fetal development of the mouse. Environ Res 33:47–53Google Scholar
  58. Zeisler R, Langland JK, Harrison SH (1983) Cyrogenic homogenization procedure for biological tissues. Anal Chem 60:2760–2765Google Scholar
  59. Zeisler R, Demiralp R, Koster BJ, Becker PR, Burow M, Ostapczuk P, Wise SA (1993) Determination of inorganic constituents in marine mammal tissues. Sci Total Environ 139/140:365–386Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Mackey
    • 1
  • P. R. Becker
    • 2
  • R. Demiralp
    • 1
  • R. R. Greenberg
    • 1
  • B. J. Koster
    • 1
  • S. A. Wise
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute of Standards and TechnologyChemical Science and Technology LaboratoryGaithersburgUSA
  2. 2.National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Protected ResourcesSilver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations