, Volume 94, Issue 4, pp 437–451 | Cite as

Caffeine physical dependence: a review of human and laboratory animal studies

  • Roland R. Griffiths
  • Phillip P. Woodson


Although caffeine is the most widely used behaviorally active drug in the world, caffeine physical dependence has been poorly characterized in laboratory animals and only moderately well characterized in humans. In humans, a review of 37 clinical reports and experimental studies dating back to 1833 shows that headache and fatigue are the most frequent withdrawal symptoms, with a wide variety of other signs and symptoms occurring at lower frequency (e.g. anxiety, impaired psychomotor performance, nausea/vomiting and craving). When caffeine withdrawal occurs, severity can vary from mild to extreme (i.e. incapacitating). The withdrawal syndrome has an onset at 12–24 h, peak at 20–48 h, and duration of about 1 week. The pharmacological specificity of caffeine withdrawal has been established. The proportion of heavy caffeine users who will experience withdrawal symptoms has been estimated from experimental studies to range from 25% to 100%. Withdrawal symptoms have been documented after relatively short-term exposure to high doses of caffeine (i.e. 6–15 days of ≥600 mg/day). Although animal and human studies suggest that physical dependence may potentiate the reinforcing effects of caffeine, human studies also demonstrate that a history of substantial caffeine intake is not a necessary condition for caffeine to function as a reinforcer. The similarities and differences between caffeine and classic drugs of abuse are discussed.

Key words

Caffeine Caffeinism Coffee Tea Physical dependence Withdrawal Reinforcer Drug self-administration Subjective effects Drug dependence Drug abuse Humans Animals 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlijanian MK, Takemori AE (1986) Cross-tolerance studies between caffeine and (-)-N6-(phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (PIA) in mice. Life Sci 38:577–588Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (1987) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3rd edn, revised. Am Psychiatr Assoc, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  3. Ammon HPT, Bieck PR, Mandalaz D, Verspohl EJ (1983) Adaptation of blood pressure to continuous heavy coffee drinking in young volunteers. A double-blind crossover study. Br J Clin Pharmacol 15:701–706Google Scholar
  4. Austin GA (1979) Perspectives on the history of psychoactive substance use. Research issues 24, DHEW publication (ADM) 79–810. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, pp 50–66Google Scholar
  5. Babington MA, Monson RA (1982) Dependence on Midol. Arch Intern Med 142:1583Google Scholar
  6. Barone JJ, Roberts H (1984) Human consumption of caffeine. In: Dews PB (ed) Caffeine: perspectives from recent research. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York Tokyo, pp 59–73Google Scholar
  7. Bättig K (1985) The physiological effects of coffee consumption. In: Clifford MN, Willson KC (eds) Coffee: botany, biochemistry and production of beans and beverage. The AVI Publ Comp, Westport, Connecticut, pp 394–439Google Scholar
  8. Bernard ME, Dennehy S, Keefauver LW (1981) Behavioral treatment of excessive coffee and tea drinking: a case study and partial replication. Behav Ther Ther 12:543–548Google Scholar
  9. Blanchard J, Sawers SJA (1983) Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly men. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm 11:109–126Google Scholar
  10. Boulenger J-P, Patel J, Post RM, Parma AM, Marangos PJ (1983) Chronic caffeine consumption increases the number of brain adenosine receptors. Life Sci 32:1135–1142Google Scholar
  11. Boyd EM, Dolman M, Knight LM, Sheppard EP (1965) The chronic oral toxicity of caffeine. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 43:995–1007Google Scholar
  12. Brady JV, Lukas SE (eds) (1984) Testing drugs for physical dependence potential and abuse liability. Natl Inst Drug Abuse Res Monogr 52. DHHS Publication No (ADM) 84–1332. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Bridge N (1893) Coffee-drinking as a frequent cause of disease. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 8:281–288Google Scholar
  14. Burns C (1977) Phensic addiction. Ulster Med J 46:100–102Google Scholar
  15. Carney JM (1982) Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats. Br J Pharmacol 75:451–454Google Scholar
  16. Carter, WR (1984) Withdrawal of caffeine from regular users: our study vs. the subjects' study. Society of Behavioral Medicine, Abstract No C93, p 40Google Scholar
  17. Chait LD, Griffiths RR (1983) Effects of caffeine on cigarette smoking and subjective response. Clin Pharmacol Ther 34:612–622Google Scholar
  18. Charney DS, Galloway MP, Heninger GR (1984) The effects of caffeine on plasma MHPG, subjective anxiety, autonomic symptoms and blood pressure in healthy humans. Life Sci 35:135–144Google Scholar
  19. Chou DT, Khan S, Forde J, Hirsh KR (1985) Caffeine tolerance: behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical evidence. Life Sci 36:2347–2358Google Scholar
  20. Cobbs LW (1982) Lethargy, anxiety, and impotence in a diabetic. Hosp Pract [Off] 17(8):67; 70; 73Google Scholar
  21. Cole J (1833) On the deleterious effects produced by drinking tea and coffee in excessive quantities. Lancet II:274–278Google Scholar
  22. Collins E, Turner G (1973) A suggestion for reducing the incidence of habitual analgesic consumption. Med J Aust 1:863Google Scholar
  23. De Busscher J, Varenne G (1966) Toxicomanie à l'Optalidon. Acta Neurol Belg 66:787–802Google Scholar
  24. De Freitas B, Schwartz G (1979) Effects of caffeine in chronic psychiatric patients. Am J Psychiatry 136:1337–1338Google Scholar
  25. Deneau G, Yanagita T, Seevers MH (1969) Self-administration of psychoactive substances by the monkey: a measure of psychological dependence. Psychopharmacologia 16:30–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dews PB (1982) Caffeine. Annu Rev Nutr 2:323–341Google Scholar
  27. Dreisbach RH, Pfeiffer C (1943) Caffeine-withdrawal headache. J Lab Clin Med 28:1212–1219Google Scholar
  28. Edelstein BA, Keaton-Brasted C, Burg MM (1983) The effects of caffeine withdrawal on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal responses. Health Psychol 2:343–352Google Scholar
  29. Ernster VL (1984) Epidemiologic studies of caffeine and human health. In: Spiller GA (ed) The methylxanthine beverages and foods: Chemistry, consumption, and health effects. Liss, New York, pp 377–400Google Scholar
  30. Finn IB, Holtzman SG (1986) Tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 238:542–546Google Scholar
  31. Finn IB, Holtzman SG (1987) Pharmacologic specificity of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity. Psychopharmacology 93:428–434Google Scholar
  32. Foxx RM, Rubinoff A (1979) Behavioral treatment of caffeinism: Reducing excessive coffee drinking. J Appl Behav Anal 12:335–344Google Scholar
  33. Franklin JC, Schiele BC, Brozek J, Keys A (1948) Observations on human behavior in experimental semistarvation and rehabilitation. J Clin Psychol 4:28–45Google Scholar
  34. Furlong FW (1975) Possible psychiatric significance of excessive coffee consumption. Can Psychiatr Assoc J 20:577–583Google Scholar
  35. Gardos G (1977) Dyskinesia after discontinuation of compound analgesic containing oxycodone. Lancet I:759–760Google Scholar
  36. Gault MH, Rudwal TC, Redmond NI (1968) Analgesic habits of 500 veterans: Incidence and complications of abuse. Can Med Assoc J 98:619–626Google Scholar
  37. Gibson CJ (1981) Caffeine withdrawal elevates urinary MHPG excretion. N Engl J Med 304:363Google Scholar
  38. Gilbert RM (1976a) Caffeine as a drug of abuse. In: Gibbins RJ, Israel Y, Kalant H, Popham RE, Schmidt W, Smart RG (eds) Research advances in alcohol and drug problems, vol 3. Wiley, New York, pp 49–176Google Scholar
  39. Gilbert RM (1976b) Tea toxicity. JAMA 236:1452Google Scholar
  40. Gilbert RM (1984) Caffeine consumption. In: Spiller GA (ed) The methylxanthine beverages and foods: Chemistry, consumption, and health effects. Liss, New York, pp 185–213Google Scholar
  41. Gilles de la Tourette, Gasne (1895) Sur l'intoxication chronique par le café. Bull Mem Soc Med Hop Paris 12:558–566Google Scholar
  42. Goldberg MR, Curatolo PW, Tung C-S, Robertson D (1982) Caffeine down-regulates β-adrenoreceptors in rat forebrain. Neurosci Lett 31:47–52Google Scholar
  43. Goldstein A (1964) Wakefulness caused by caffeine. Naunyn Schmiedeberg's Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 248:269–278Google Scholar
  44. Goldstein A, Kaizer S (1969) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. III. A questionnaire survey of coffee drinking and its effects in a group of housewives. Clin Pharmacol Ther 10:477–488Google Scholar
  45. Goldstein A, Kaizer S, Warren R (1965a) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. II. Alertness, psychomotor coordination, and mood. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 150:146–151Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein A, Warren R, Kaizer S (1965b) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. I. Individual differences in sensitivity to caffeine-induced wakefulness. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 149:156–159Google Scholar
  47. Goldstein A, Kaizer S, Whitby O (1969) Psychotropic effects of caffeine in man. IV. Quantitative and qualitative differences associated with habituation to coffee. Clin Pharmacol Ther 10:489–497Google Scholar
  48. Goldstein A, Aronow L, Kalman SM (1974) Principles of drug action: The basis of pharmacology, 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Graham DM (1978) Caffeine — its identity, dietary sources, intake and biological effects. Nutr Rev 36:97–102Google Scholar
  50. Granella F, Farina S, Malferrari G, Manzoni GC (1987) Drug abuse in chronic headache: a clinico-epidemiologic study. Cephalalgia 7:15–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Greden JF (1974) Anxiety or caffeinism: A diagnostic dilemma. Am J Psychiatry 131:1089–1092Google Scholar
  52. Greden JF (1980) Caffeine and tobacco dependence. In: Kaplan HI, Freedman AM, Sadock BJ (eds) Comprehensive textbook of psyciatry/III, vol 2, 3rd edn. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore London, pp 1645–1652Google Scholar
  53. Greden JF (1981) Caffeinism and caffeine withdrawal. In: Lowinson JH, Ruiz P (eds) Substance abuse: clinical problems and perspectives. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore London, pp 274–286Google Scholar
  54. Greden JF, Fontaine P, Lubetsky M, Chamberlin K (1978) Anxiety and depression associated with caffeinism among psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 135:963–966Google Scholar
  55. Greden JF, Victor BS, Fontaine P, Lubetsky M (1980) Caffeine-withdrawal headache: A clinical profile. Psychosomatics 21:411–413; 417–418Google Scholar
  56. Green RM, Stiles GL (1986) Chronic caffeine ingestion sensitizes the A1 adenosine receptor-adenylate cyclase system in rat cerebral cortex. J Clin Invest 77:222–227Google Scholar
  57. Griffiths RR, Woodson PP (1987) Reinforcing properties of cafeine: studies in humans and laboratory animals. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (in press)Google Scholar
  58. Griffiths RR, Brady JV, Bradford LD (1979) Predicting the abuse liability of drugs with animal drug self-administration procedures: psychomotor stimulants and hallucinogens. In: Thompson T, Dews PB (eds) Advances in behavioral pharmacology, vol 2. Academic Press, New York, pp 163–208Google Scholar
  59. Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, Henningfield JE (1980) Similarities in animal and human drug-taking behavior. In: Mello NK (ed) Advances in substance abuse, vol 1, JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut, pp 1–90Google Scholar
  60. Griffiths RR, Lamb RJ, Ator NA, Roache JD, Brady JV (1985) Relative abuse liability of triazolam: experimental assessment in animals and humans. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 9:133–151Google Scholar
  61. Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA (1986a) Human coffee drinking: reinforcing and physical dependence producing effects of caffeine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 239:416–425Google Scholar
  62. Griffiths RR, Bigelow GE, Liebson IA, O'Keeffe M, O'Leary D, Russ N (1986b) Human coffee drinking: manipulation of concentration and caffeine dose. J Exp Anal Behav 45:133–148Google Scholar
  63. Guelliot O (1885a) Du caféisme chronique. Union Med Sci Nordest 9:181–194Google Scholar
  64. Guelliot O (1885b) Du caféisme chronique. Union Med Sci Nordest 9:221–240Google Scholar
  65. Guelliot O (1887) Le caféisme. J Prat Rev Gen Clin Ther 1:677–680Google Scholar
  66. Harrie JR (1970) Caffeine and headache. JAMA 213:628Google Scholar
  67. Hirsh, K (1984) Central nervous system pharmacology of the dietary methylxanthines. In: Spiller GA (ed) The methylxanthine beverages and foods: Chemistry, consumption, and health effects, Liss, New York, pp 235–301Google Scholar
  68. Hollingworth, HL (1912) The influence of caffein on mental and motor efficiency, Arch Psychol (No. 22), 1–166. In: Woodworth RS (ed) Columbia contributions to philosophy and psychology, vol 20, no. 4. The Science Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  69. Holtzman SG (1983) Complete, reversible, drug-specific tolerance to stimulation of locomotor activity by caffeine. Life Sci 33:779–787Google Scholar
  70. Holtzman SG (1987) Discriminative stimulus effects of caffeine: tolerance and cross-tolerance with methylphenidate. Life Sci 40:381–389Google Scholar
  71. Holtzman SG, Finn IB (1987) Tolerance to behavioral effects of caffeine in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav (in press)Google Scholar
  72. Horowitz DA, Jablonski W, Mehta KA (1982) Apnea associated with theophylline withdrawal in a term neonate. Am J Dis Child 136:73–74Google Scholar
  73. Horst K, Buxton RE, Robinson WD (1934) The effect of the habitual use of coffee or decaffeinated coffee upon blood pressure and certain motor reactions of normal young men. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 52:322–337Google Scholar
  74. Hyner GC (1979) Relaxation as principal treatment for excessive cigarette use and caffeine ingestion by a college female. Psychol Rep 45:531–534Google Scholar
  75. Ideström C-M (1960) Fenacetin-fenazon-coffein tillvänjning: En experimentell studie. Nord Med 64:1484–1487Google Scholar
  76. In Der Beeck M (1961) Kaffeesucht und Koffeinismus: Zugleich ein literarischer Beitrag zur Definition der Sucht. Ther Monats 7:232–237Google Scholar
  77. Isbell H, Wilker A, Eisenman AJ, Daingerfield M, Frank K (1948) Liability of addiction to 6-dimethylamino-4–4-diphenyl-3-heptanone (methadon, “amidone” or “10820”) in man. Arch Intern Med 82:362–392Google Scholar
  78. James JE, Stirling KP, Hampton BAM (1985) Caffeine fading: behavioral treatment of caffeine abuse. Behav Ther 16:15–27Google Scholar
  79. James JE, Paull I, Cameron-Traub E (1987) Biochemical validation of self-reported caffeine consumption during caffeine fading. J Behav Med (in press)Google Scholar
  80. Kalow W (1985) Variability of caffeine metabolism in humans. Arzneimittelforschung 35(I):319–324Google Scholar
  81. Khoury GC, Maltbie AA (1984) Caffeine — a drug with multiple points of entry. NC Med J 45:225–226Google Scholar
  82. Kielholz P (1970) Present problems of drug dependence in Switzerland. Bull Narc 12(2):1–6Google Scholar
  83. King E (1903) Tea and coffee intoxication. Am Med 5:182–183Google Scholar
  84. Kingdon (1833) Effects of tea and coffee drinking. Lancet II:47–48Google Scholar
  85. Kolb L (1927) Clinical contribution to drug addiction: the struggle for cure and the conscious reasons for relapse. J Nerv Ment Dis 66:22–43Google Scholar
  86. Kozlowski LT (1976) Effect of caffeine on coffee drinking. Nature 264:354–355Google Scholar
  87. Laux G (1979) Ein Fall von Akrinor®-Sucht. Nervenarzt 50:121–123Google Scholar
  88. Logan L, Seale TW, Carney JM (1986) Inherent differences in sensitivity to methylxanthines among inbred mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 24:1281–1286Google Scholar
  89. Mackenzie TB, Popkin MK, Dziubinski J, Sheppard JR (1981) Effects of caffeine withdrawal on isoproterenol-stimulated cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Clin Pharmacol Ther 30:436–438Google Scholar
  90. Marangos PJ, Boulenger J-P, Patel J (1984) Effects of chronic caffeine on brain adenosine receptors: Regional and ontogenetic studies. Life Sci 34:899–907Google Scholar
  91. Marburg O (1899) Ueber einen Fall von Spätepilepsie bei einer Kaffeebohnenesserin. Wien Klin Rundsch 13:337–339Google Scholar
  92. Martin WR (ed) (1977) Drug addiction I: Morphine, sedative/hypnotic and alcohol dependence. Handbook of experimental pharmacology, vol 45/I, Heffter-Heubner New Series, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  93. Mathew RJ, Wilson WH (1985) Caffeine consumption, withdrawal and cerebral blood flow. Headache 25:305–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. McNair DM, Lorr M, Droppleman LF (1971) Profile of mood states (manual). Educational and Industrial Testing Service, San Diego, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  95. Mendel F (1889) Die schädlichen Folgen des chronischen Kaffeemissbrauchs. Berl Klin Wochenschr 26:877–880Google Scholar
  96. Miller JL (1960) Caffeine, chocolate and withdrawal headaches. Northwest Med 59:502–504Google Scholar
  97. Molde DA (1975) Diagnosing caffeinism. Am J Psychiatry 132:202Google Scholar
  98. Murray RM (1973) Dependence on analgesics in analgesic nephropathy. Br J Addict 68:265–272Google Scholar
  99. Naismith DJ, Akinyanju PA, Szanto S, Yudkin J (1970) The effect in volunteers of coffee and decaffeinated coffee on blood glucose, insulin, plasma lipids and some factors involved in blood clotting. Nutr Metab 12:144–151Google Scholar
  100. Newman RG (1983) The need to redefine “addiction.” N Engl J Med 308:1096–1098Google Scholar
  101. Petursson H, Lader M (1984) Dependence on tranquillizers. In: Russell G, Marley E, Williams P (eds) Institute of Psychiatry Maudsley monographs, no 28. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  102. Podboy J, Malloy W (1977) Caffeine reduction and behavior changes in the severely retarded. Ment Retard 15:40Google Scholar
  103. Rainey JT (1985) Headache related to chronic caffeine addiction. Tex Dent J 102:29–30Google Scholar
  104. Rall TW (1985) Central nervous system stimulants [continued]: The methylxanthines. In: Gilman AG, Goodman LS, Rall TW, Murad F (eds) Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 7th edn. Macmillan, New York, pp 589–603Google Scholar
  105. Rapoport JL, Jensvold M, Elkins R, Buchsbaum MS, Weingartner H, Ludlow C, Zahn TP, Berg CJ, Neims AH (1981) Behavioral and cognitive effects of caffeine in boys and adult males. J Nerv Ment Dis 169:726–732Google Scholar
  106. Reimann HA (1967) Caffeinism: A cause of long-continued, low-grade fever. JAMA 202:131–132Google Scholar
  107. Rippere V (1984) Some varieties of food intolerance in psychiatric patients: An overview. Nutr Health 3:125–136Google Scholar
  108. Robertson D, Wade D, Workman R, Woosley RL, Oates JA (1981) Tolerance to the humoral and hemodynamic effects of caffeine in man. J Clin Invest 67:1111–1117Google Scholar
  109. Roch M (1914) Société médicale de Genève, Séance du 4 février 1914. Rev Med Suisse Romande 34:217–219Google Scholar
  110. Roch M (1916) Le caféisme chronique. Arch Mal Coeur 9:19–33Google Scholar
  111. Roller L (1981) Caffeinism: Subjective quantitative aspect of withdrawal syndrome. Med J Aust 1:146Google Scholar
  112. Ross BD (1971) Caffeine and fluid retention. JAMA 218:596Google Scholar
  113. Rugh JT (1896) Profound toxic effects from the drinking of large amounts of strong coffee. Med Surg Rep 75:549–550Google Scholar
  114. Schilling V (1928) Über einen als Herzfehler erscheinenden Fall von “Innenkörperanämie”, aufgedeckt als chronische Antife-brinvergiftung und Coffeinsucht. Z Klin Med 108:709–736Google Scholar
  115. Schlesinger H (1931) Verhandlungen ärztlicher Gesellschaften und Kongreßberichte: Offizielles Protokoll der Gesellschaft der Aerzte in Wien, Sitzung vom 8. Mai 1931. Wien Klin Wochenschr 44:657Google Scholar
  116. Schulte D (1950) Ungewöhnliche Folgen nach Coffeingenuß. Ber Zusammenkunft Dtsch Ophthalmol Ges 55:406–408 (Demonstrations-Sitzung Nr 28)Google Scholar
  117. Seale TW, Abla KA, Cao W, Parker KM, Rennert OM, Carney JM (1986) Inherent hyporesponsiveness to methylxanthine-induced behavioral changes associated with supersensitivity to 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA). Pharmacol Biochem Behav 25:1271–1277Google Scholar
  118. Shorofsky MA, Lamm N (1977) Caffeine-withdrawal headache and fasting. NY State J Med 77:217–218Google Scholar
  119. Snyder SH (1985) Adenosine as a neuromodulator. Annu Rev Neurosci 8:103–124Google Scholar
  120. Stoffer SS (1979) Coffee consumption. Arch Intern Med 139:1194–1195Google Scholar
  121. Stransky E (1932) Zur Frage des Coffeinismus. Wien Med Wochenschr 82:395–398Google Scholar
  122. Victor BS, Lubetsky M, Greden JF (1981) Somatic manifestations of caffeinism. J Clin Psychiatry 42:185–188Google Scholar
  123. Vitiello MV, Woods SC (1977) Evidence for withdrawal from caffeine by rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 6:553–555Google Scholar
  124. Vojtěchovský M, Šafratová V (1972) Comparative study of caffeine with other stimulants in university students. Act Nerv Super 14:138–139Google Scholar
  125. Von Borstel RW, Wurtman RJ, Conlay LA (1983) Chronic caffeine consumption potentiates the hypotensive action of circulating adenosine. Life Sci 32:1151–1158Google Scholar
  126. Wagner W (1939) Kaffee, ein Rauschmittel. Nervenarzt 12:296–301Google Scholar
  127. Weil A, Rosen W (1983) Chocolate to morphine: Understanding mind-active drugs. Houghton Mifflin Company, BostonGoogle Scholar
  128. Weiss B, Laties VG (1962) Enhancement of human performance by caffeine and the amphetamines. Pharmacol Rev 14:1–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. White BC, Lincoln CA, Pearce NW, Reeb R, Vaida C (1980) Anxiety and muscle tension as consequences of caffeine withdrawal. Science 209:1547–1548Google Scholar
  130. Wilkin JK (1986) The caffeine withdrawal flush: Report of a case of “weekend flushing”. Milit Med 151:123–124Google Scholar
  131. Winstead DK (1976) Coffee consumption among psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 133:1447–1450Google Scholar
  132. Young JJ, Brownlee HJ, Delaney R (1982) Caffeine and burning feet. Drug Intell Clin Pharm 16:779–780Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roland R. Griffiths
    • 1
  • Phillip P. Woodson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations