Chemometric comparisons of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran residues in surficial sediments from Newark Bay, New Jersey and other industrialized waterways

  • Richard J. Wenning
  • Mark A. Harris
  • Michael J. Ungs
  • Dennis J. Paustenbach
  • Hadley Bedbury


The distributions of 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) measured in surficial sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay, New Jersey were compared to those observed in sediments from other waterways located within industrial or heavily populated areas using chemometric techniques. Comparisons were conducted using published data to determine whether the distributions of 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers in surficial sediments from industrialized waterways have similar or different fingerprint patterns. Chemometric evaluations consisted of principal components analysis and the complete linkage: farthest neighbor cluster method. The concentrations of individual isomers were normalized to the combined sum of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD and PCDF isomer concentrations in order to evaluate relative distribution patterns. Several of the isomeric fingerprint patterns found in sediments from the lower Passaic River and Newark Bay were similar to those found in sediments from New Bedford Harbor, MA, USA, Black Rock Harbor, CT, USA, Providence River, RI, USA, Eagle Harbor, WA, USA, the Inner Stockholm archipelago, Sweden, Hamburg Harbor, Germany, and St. Laurensharbor, The Netherlands. Pattern differences were observed in sediments from Frierfjorden, Norway, Niagara River, NY, USA, and Chemieharbor, The Netherlands. The variations among the 2,3,7,8-substituted isomer patterns observed in different sediments were largely explained by the distributions of the higher chlorinated isomers. Other differences may be attributed to environmental conditions unique to each waterway such as tidal flux, shipping traffic, urbanization, sedimentation rates, and the presence of different industrial sources. Similarities in PCDD and PCDF patterns among the waterways were related to the presence of similar municipal and industrial sources, including effluents from pentachlorophenol and polychlorinated biphenyl manufacturing facilities, pulp and paper mills, automobile and shipping traffic, and municipal solid waste and industrial incinerators. The distributions of PCDDs and PCDFs in surficial sediments from some areas of the Newark Bay estuary were representative of those found in many industrialized regions. It wsa evident from this analysis that the application of chemometric analysis can be useful in characterizing the distribution of complex multi-constituent chemical residues and identifying sources of these compounds in freshwater, estuarine, and marine sediments.


Municipal Solid Waste Dibenzofuran Surficial Sediment Fingerprint Pattern Shipping Traffic 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amendola G, Barna D, Blosser R, LaFleur L, McBride A, Thomas F, Tiernan T, Whittemore R (1989) The occurrence and fate of PCDDs and PCDFs in five bleached kraft pulp and paper mills. Chemosphere 18:1181–1188Google Scholar
  2. Antonsson AB, Runmark S, Mowrer J, Kjeller L-O (1989) Dioxins in the work environment in steel mills. Chemosphere 19:699–704Google Scholar
  3. Arthur MA and Frea JI (1989) 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Aspects of its important properties and its potential biodegradation in soils. J Environ Qual 18:1–11Google Scholar
  4. Belton TJ, Hazen R, Ruppel BE, Lockwood K, Mueller R, Stevenson E, Post JJ (1985) A study of dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) contamination in select finfish, crustaceans, and sediments of New Jersey waterways. Office of Science and Research, New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJGoogle Scholar
  5. Bingham AG, Edmunds CJ, Graham BWL, Jones MT (1989) Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs in car exhaust. Chemosphere 19:669–673Google Scholar
  6. Bopp RF (1988) Dioxins in Newark Bay. In: Annual Report, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, p 8Google Scholar
  7. Bopp RF, Gross ML, Tong H, Simpson HJ, Monson SJ, Deck BL, Moser FC (1991) A major incident of dioxin contamination: Sediments of New Jersey estuaries. Environ Sci Technol 25:951–956Google Scholar
  8. Broman D, Nat C, Zebuhr Y, Lexen K (1989) The composition, distribution, and flux of PCDDs and PCDFs in settling particulate matter (SPM)—A sediment trap study in the Northern Baltic. Chemosphere 19:445–450Google Scholar
  9. Buchert H, Ballschmiter K (1986) Polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF) and-dioxins (PCDD) as part of the general pollution in environmental samples of urban areas. Chemosphere 15:1923–1926Google Scholar
  10. Christmann W, Kloppel KD, Partscht H, Rotard W (1989a) PCDD/PCDF and chlorinated phenols in wood preserving formulations for household use. Chemosphere 18:861–865Google Scholar
  11. Christmann W, Kasisk D, Kloppel KD, Partscht H, Rotard W (1989b) Combustion of polyvinylchloride—An important source for the formation of PCDD/PCDF. Chemosphere 19:387–392Google Scholar
  12. Christmann W, Kloppel KD, Partscht H, Rotard W (1989c) Tetrachlorobenzoquinones, a source of PCDD/PCDF. Chemosphere 18:789–792Google Scholar
  13. Clement RE, Tosine HM, Ali B (1985) Levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wood burning stoves and fireplaces. Chemosphere 14:815–819Google Scholar
  14. Clement RE, Tashiro C, Suter S, Reiner E, Hollinger D (1989) Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDDs) and dibenzofurans (CDFs) in effluents and sludges from pulp and paper mills. Chemosphere 18:1189–1197Google Scholar
  15. Cook PM, Batterman AR, Butterworth BC, Lodge KB, Kohlbry SW (1989) Laboratory study of TCDD bioaccumulation by lake trout from Lake Ontario sediments, food chain, and water: Chap 6. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Laboratory, Duluth, MNGoogle Scholar
  16. Cooper KR (1989) Effects of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans on aquatic organisms. Rev Aquatic Sci 1:227–242Google Scholar
  17. Creaser CS, Fernandes AR, Harrad SJ, Cox EA (1990) Levels and sources of PCDDs and PCDFs in urban British soils. Chemosphere 21:931–938Google Scholar
  18. Czuczwa JM, Hites RA (1984) Environmental fate of combustion-generated polychlorinated dioxins and furans. Environ Sci Technol 18:444–450Google Scholar
  19. De Vault D, Dunn W, Bergqvist P-A, Wiberg K, Rappe C (1989) Polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in Great Lakes fish: A baseline and interlake comparison. Environ Toxicol Chem 8:1013–1022Google Scholar
  20. Dunn WJ, Stalling DL, Schwartz TR, Hogan JW, Petty JD, Johansson E, Wold S (1984) Pattern recognition for classification and determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples. Anal Chem 56:1308–1313Google Scholar
  21. Evers EHG, Ree KCM, Olie K (1988) Spatial variations and correlations in the distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and related compounds in sediments from the River Rhine—Western Europe. Chemosphere 17:2272–2288Google Scholar
  22. Evers EHG, van Berghem JW, Olie K (1989) Exploratory data analysis of PCDD and PCDF measurements in sediments from industrial areas. Chemosphere 19:459–466Google Scholar
  23. Finley B, Wenning RJ, Ungs M, Huntley S, Paustenbach DJ (1990) PCDDs and PCDFs in surficial sediments from the Lower Passaic River and Newark Bay. Proc 10th Int Dioxin Conf, p 409Google Scholar
  24. Goldstein JA, Safe S (1989) Mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships for the chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and related compounds. In: Jensen KA (ed) Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins and related compounds. Elsevier, NY, p 239Google Scholar
  25. Gotz R, Schumacher E, Kjeller L-O, Bergqvist P-A, Rappe C (1990) Polychlorierte dibenzo-p-dioxine (PCDDs) und polychlorierte dibenzofurane (PCDFs) in sedimenten und fischen aus dem Hamburger Hafen. Chemosphere 20:51–73Google Scholar
  26. Hagenmaier H, Berchtold A (1986) Analysis of waste from production of Na-pentachlorophenolate for polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF). Chemosphere 15:1991–1994Google Scholar
  27. Hagenmaier H (1986) Determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in commercial chlorophenols and related products. Fresenius Z Anal Chem 325:603–606Google Scholar
  28. Hagenmaier H, Brunner H, Haag R, Berchtold A (1986) PCDDs and PCDFs in sewage sludge, river and lake sediments from South West Germany. Chemosphere 15:1421–1428Google Scholar
  29. Heindl A, Hutzinger O (1987) Search for industrial sources of PCDD/PCDF: III. Short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons. Chemosphere 16:1949–1957Google Scholar
  30. —, — (1989) Search for industrial sources of PCDD/PCDFs: IV. Phthalocyanine dyes. Chemosphere 18:1207–1211Google Scholar
  31. Hutzinger O, Blumich MJ, van den Berg M, Olie K (1985) Sources and fate of PCDDs and PCDFs: An overview. Chemosphere 14:581–600Google Scholar
  32. Jan J, Buser HR (1989) Formation of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins on heating lindane in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. Chemosphere 19:1163–1164Google Scholar
  33. Keenan RE, Parsons AH, Ebert ES, Wenning RJ, Paustenbach DJ (1990) Setting rational health-based water quality standards for dioxin—Risk assessment for the Columbia River. Proc 1990 TAPPI Environ Conf, p 801Google Scholar
  34. Kjeller L-O, Kulp S-E, Bergek S, Bostrom M, Bergauist P-A, Rappe C, Jonsson B, de Wit C, Jansson B, Olsson M (1990) Levels and possible sources of PCDD/PCDF in sediment and pike samples from Swedish lakes and rivers, (part one). Chemosphere 20:1489–1496Google Scholar
  35. Kjeller L-O, Jones KC, Johnston AE, Rappe C (1991) Increases in the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan content of soils and vegetation since the 1840's. Environ Sci Technol 25:1619–1627Google Scholar
  36. Kleeman JM, Olson JR, Peterson RE (1988) Species differences in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity and biotransformation in fish. Fund Appl Toxicol 10:206–213Google Scholar
  37. Kuehl DW, Butterworth BC, DeVita WM, Sauer CP (1987) Environmental contamination by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans associated with pulp and paper mill discharge. Biomed Environ Mass Spectrosc 14:443–447Google Scholar
  38. Lake JL, Rogerson PF, Norwood CB (1981) A polychlorinated dibenzofuran and related compounds in an estuarine ecosystem. Environ Sci Technol 15:549–553Google Scholar
  39. Marklund S, Anderson R, Tysklind M, Rappe C, Egeback KE, Bjorkman E, Grigoriadis V (1990) Emissions of PCDDs and PCDFs in gasoline and diesel fueled cars. Chemosphere 20:553–561Google Scholar
  40. Massart DL, Kaufman L (1983) The interpretation of analytical chemical data by the use of cluster analysis. In: Elving PJ, Winefordner JD (eds) Chemical analysis: A series of monographs on analytical chemistry and its applications. John Wiley & Sons, NYGoogle Scholar
  41. McCormick JM, Hires RI, Luther GW, Cheng SL (1983) Partial recovery of Newark Bay, NJ, following pollution abatement. Mar Pollut Bull 14:188–197Google Scholar
  42. Mehta BM, Ahlert RC, Yu SL (1975) Stochastic variation of water quality of the Passaic River. Water Resour Res 11:300–308Google Scholar
  43. Meyer C, O'Keefe P, Hilker D, Rafferty L, Wilson L, Connor S, Aldous K (1989) A survey of twenty community water systems in New York State for PCDDs and PCDFs. Chemosphere 19:21–26Google Scholar
  44. Meyerson AL, Luther GW, Krajewski J, Hires RI (1981) Heavy metal distribution in Newark Bay sediments. Mar Pollut Bull 12:244–250Google Scholar
  45. Mueller JA, Gerrish TA, Casey MC (1982) Contaminant inputs to the Hudson-Raritan Estuary. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Memorandum OMPA-21, Boulder, COGoogle Scholar
  46. New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) (1989) Status report on the hazardous waste management program in New Jersey—Site specific information. Hazardous Waste Management Program, Trenton, NJGoogle Scholar
  47. Norwood CB, Hackett M, Pruell RJ, Butterworth BC, Williamson KJ, Naumann SM (1989) Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in selected estuarine sediments. Chemosphere 18:553–560Google Scholar
  48. Oehme M, Mano S, Brevik EM, Knutzen J (1989) Determination of polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) levels and isomer patterns in fish, crustacea, mussel, and sediment samples from a fjord region polluted by Mg-pollution. Fresenius Z Anal Chem 335:987–997Google Scholar
  49. Oehme M, Bartonova A, Knutzen J (1990) Estimation of polychlorinated dibenzofuran and dibenzo-p-dioxin contamination of a coastal region using isomer profiles in crabs. Environ Sci Technol 24:1836–1841Google Scholar
  50. O'Keefe P, Hilker D, Meyer C, Aldous K, Shane L, Donnelly R, Smith R, Sloan R, Skinner L, Horn E (1984) Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins and tetrachlorodibenzofurans in Atlantic coast striped bass and in selected Hudson River fish, waterfowl and sediments. Chemosphere 13:849–860Google Scholar
  51. Petty JD, Smith LM, Bergquist P-A, Johnson JL, Stalling DL, Rappe C (1983) Composition of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins Residues in Sediments of the Hudson and Housatonic Rivers. In: Choudhary G, Keith LH, Rappe C (eds) Chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans in the total environment. Butterworth Publishing, Boston, p 203Google Scholar
  52. Pitea D, Todeschini R, Lasagni M, Moro G, Bonati L, Chiesa G (1989a) The combustion of municipal solid wastes: PCDD and PCDF in MSW and in emissions. A chemometric approach. Chemosphere 19:751–757Google Scholar
  53. Pitea D, Bonati L, Lasagni M, Moro G, Todeschini R, Chiesa G (1989b) The combustion of municipal solid wastes and PCDD and PCDF emissions. Part 1. PCDD and PCDF in MSW. Chemosphere 18:1457–1464Google Scholar
  54. Pitea D, Lasagni M, Bonati L, Moro G, Todeschini R, Chiesa G (1989c) The combustion of municipal solid wastes and PCDD and PCDF emissions. Part 2. PCDD and PCDF in stack gases. Chemosphere 18:1465–1474Google Scholar
  55. Pitea D, Cosentino U, Lasagni M, Moro G, Todeschini R, Chiesa G (1989d) The combustion of municipal solid wastes and PCDD and PCDF emissions. Part 3. PCDD and PCDF in fly ash. Chemosphere 18:1475–1483Google Scholar
  56. Podoll RT, Jaber HM, Mill T (1986) Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: Rates of volatilization and photolysis in the environment. Environ Sci Tech 20:490–492Google Scholar
  57. Rappe C, Andersson R, Bergqvist P-A, Brohede C, Hansson M, Kjeller L-O, Lindstrom G, Marklund S, Nygren M, Swanson SE, Tysklind M, Wiberg K (1987a) Sources and relative importance of PCDD and PCDF emissions. Waste Manage Res 5:225–237Google Scholar
  58. —, et al., (1987b) Overview of environmental fate of chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. Sources, levels, and isomeric patterns in various matrices. Chemosphere 16:1603–1618Google Scholar
  59. Rappe C, Kjeller L-O, Bruckmann P, Hackne K-H (1988) Identification and quantification of PCDDs and PCDFs in urban air. Chemosphere 17:3–20Google Scholar
  60. Rappe C, Bergqvist P-A, Kjeller L-O (1989a) Levels, trends, and patterns of PCDDs and PCDFs in Scandanavian environmental samples. Chemosphere 18:651–658Google Scholar
  61. Rappe C, Kjeller L-O, Andersson R (1989b) Analyses of PCDDs and PCDFs in sludge and water samples. Chemosphere 19:13–20Google Scholar
  62. Rappe C, Andersson R, Lundstrom S, Wiberg K (1990) Levels of polychlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans in commercial detergents and related products. Chemosphere 21:43–50Google Scholar
  63. Rappe C, Bergqvist P-A, Kjeller L-O, Swanson S, Belton T, Ruppel B, Lockwood K, Kahn PC (1991) Levels and patterns of PCDD and PCDF contamination in fish, crabs, and lobsters from Newark Bay and the New York Bight. Chemosphere 22:239–266Google Scholar
  64. Ree KCM, Evers EHG, van den Berg M (1988) Mechanisms of formation of polychlorinated dibenzo (p) dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from potential industrial sources. Toxicol Environ Chem 17:171–195Google Scholar
  65. Reed LW, Hunt GT, Maisel BE, Hoyt M, O'Keefe D, Hackney P (1990) Baseline assessment of PCDDs/PCDFs in the vicinity of the Elk River, Minnesota generating station. Chemosphere 16: 159–171Google Scholar
  66. Research Planning Incorporated (RPI) (1989) Contingency Planning for Chemical and Oil Contamination: The Port of New York and New Jersey. Volume 1. Columbia, SCGoogle Scholar
  67. Schecter A, Tong HY, Monson SJ, Gross ML (1989a) Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in silt samples collected between 1985–86 from rivers in the north and south of Vietnam. Chemosphere 19:547–550Google Scholar
  68. Schecter A, Eitzer BD, Hites RA (1989b) Chlorinated dioxin and dibenzofuran levels in sediments collected from rivers in Vietnam, 1984–6. Chemosphere 18:831–834Google Scholar
  69. Scholz B, Engler M (1987) Determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in wastes of technical hexachlorocyclohexane. Chemosphere 16:1829–1834Google Scholar
  70. Schwartz TR, Stalling DL (1991) Chemometric comparison of polychlorinated biphenyl residues and toxicologically active polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the eggs of Forster's terns (Sterna fosteri). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20:183–199Google Scholar
  71. Smith RM, O'Keefe PW, Aldous KM, Valente H, Connor SP, Donnelly RJ (1990) Chlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxins in atmospheric samples from cities in New York. Environ Sci Technol 24:1502–1506Google Scholar
  72. Stalling DL, Norstrom RJ, Smith LM, Simon M (1985a) Patterns of PCDD, PCDF, and PCB contamination in Great Lakes fish and birds and their characterization by principal components analysis. Chemosphere 14:627–643Google Scholar
  73. Stalling DL, Petty JD, Smith LM, Dunn WJ (1985b) Dioxins and furans in the environment: A problem for chemometrics. In: Kamin MA, Rudgers PW (eds) Dioxins in the environment. Hemosphere, Washington, DC, p 101Google Scholar
  74. Swanson SE, Rappe C (1988) Emission of PCDDs and PCDFs from the pulp industry. Chemosphere 17:681–691Google Scholar
  75. Swerev M, Ballschmiter K (1989) Pattern analysis of PCDDs and PCDFs in environmental samples as an approach to an occurrence/source correlation. Chemosphere 18:609–616Google Scholar
  76. Thielemans A, Massart DL (1985) The use of principal component analysis as a display method in the interpretation of analytical chemical, biochemical, environmental, and epidemiological data. Chima 39:236–242Google Scholar
  77. Thoma H (1988) PCDD/F concentrations in chimney soot from house heating systems. Chemosphere 17:1369–1379Google Scholar
  78. Tiernan TO, Wagel DJ, Vanness GF, Garrett JH, Solch JG, Harden LA (1989) PCDD/PCDF in the ambient air of a metropolitan area in the U.S. Chemosphere 19:541–546Google Scholar
  79. Tong HY, Karasek FW (1986) Comparison of PCDD and PCDF in fly ash collected from municipal incinerators of different countries. Chemosphere 15:1219–1224Google Scholar
  80. Tong HY, Monson SJ, Gross ML, Bopp RF, Simpson HJ, Deck BL, Moser FC (1990) Analysis of dated sediment samples from the Newark Bay area for selected PCDD/Fs. Chemosphere 20:1497–1502Google Scholar
  81. Townsend DI (1986) The use of isomer specific data to characterize and differentiate sources of dioxins into the environment. Chemosphere 15:1461–1466Google Scholar
  82. Travis CC, Hattermer-Frey HA (1990) Concentrations of TCDD in fish and the potential for human exposure. Environ Int 16:155–162Google Scholar
  83. Turkstra E, Pols HB (1989) PCDDs and PCDFs in Dutch inland waters. Chemosphere 18:539–551Google Scholar
  84. Tysklind M, Soderstrom G, Rappe C, Hagersted L-E, Burstrom E (1989) PCDD and PCDF emissions form scrap metal melting processes at a steel mill. Chemosphere 19:705–710Google Scholar
  85. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (1987) The National Dioxin Study: Tiers 3, 5, 6, and 7. EPA-440/4-87-003, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  86. Weerasinghe NCA, Gross ML, Lisk DJ (1985) Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in sewage sludges. Chemosphere 14:557–564Google Scholar
  87. Wold S, Esbensen K, Gelati P (1987) Principal components analysis. Chemo Int Lab Systems 2:37–47Google Scholar
  88. Yasuhara A, Ito H, Morita M (1987) Isomer-specific determination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in incinerator-related environmental samples. Environ Sci Technol 21:971–979Google Scholar
  89. Yanders AF, Kapila S, Lo Y-H, Puri R, Cerlesi S (1990) Persistence of tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in soil: Times Beach case study. Proc 10th Int Dioxin Conf, p 339Google Scholar
  90. Zitko V (1989) Composition of chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans in various samples. Sci Total Environ 80:127–137Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard J. Wenning
    • 1
  • Mark A. Harris
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael J. Ungs
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dennis J. Paustenbach
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hadley Bedbury
    • 4
  1. 1.ChemRisk—A McLaren/Hart GroupStroudwater CrossingPortlandUSA
  2. 2.IrvineUSA
  3. 3.AlamedaUSA
  4. 4.Maxus Energy CorporationDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations