Advertisement

Transfer of lead from lead-glazed ceramics to food

  • E. González de Mejía
  • A. L. Craigmill
Article

Abstract

Recent studies have shown a clear correlation between the use of lead-glazed ceramicware for cooking or food preparation and elevated blood lead levels. Two lots of lead-glazed ceramic bowls, each from a single manufacturing and firing lot were used to measure the sequential leaching of lead into salsa (an acidic food) and beans (a neutral food) stored or cooked in the bowls. The USFDA acetic acid extraction assay was also repeatedly performed on these bowls. The results of the USFDA extraction test were highly variable with levels ranging from 200 to more than 2,000 ppm (regulatory level for rejection is 2 ppm). The levels extracted declined rapidly but the rates were variable. Leaching of lead into salsa (pH=4.8) was variable and ranged from 8 to greater than 500 ppm. Sequential extractions using salsa yielded variable but declining lead levels. Cooking beans with water in the bowls did not cause substantial leaching (levels between 3 and 8 ppm) and sequential cooking did not show any significant decline over 10 cycles. The results indicate substantial variability in leaching of lead into foods stored or cooked in lead-glazed ceramicware.

Keywords

Leaching Sequential Extraction Elevated Blood Acid Extraction Clear Correlation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis Lead in Food (1990) Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method (972.25), p 258Google Scholar
  2. Avila MH, Romieu I, Rios C, Rivero A, Palazuelos E (1991) Lead-glazed ceramics as major determinants of blood lead levels in Mexican women. Environ Health Perspectives 94:117–120Google Scholar
  3. Beale AM, Craigmill AL, Wetzlich S (1991) A rapid lead test: Public outreach and testing to detect leachable lead in ceramic ware. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20:423–426Google Scholar
  4. Gellert GA, Wagner GA, Maxwell RM, Moore D, Foster L (1993) Lead poisoning among low-income children in Orange County, California; A need for regionally differentiated policy. JAMA 270(1):69–71Google Scholar
  5. Jimenez C, Romieu I, Palazuelos E, Munoz I, Cortes M, Rivero A, Catalan J (1993) Environmental exposure factors and the concentrations of blood lead in Mexico City children. Salud Publica de Mexico 35(6):599–606Google Scholar
  6. Romieu I, Palazuelos E, Hernandez-Avila M, Rios C, Munoz I, Jimenez C, Cahero G (1994) Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City. Environ Health Perspectives 102(4):384–389Google Scholar
  7. U.S. Centers for Disease Control (1993) State activities for prevention of lead poisoning among children—United States, 1992. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1993 Mar 12, 42(9):165, 171–172.Google Scholar
  8. Vega-Franco L, Alvear G, Meza-Camacho C (1994) Glazed pottery as a risk factor in lead exposure. Salud Publica de Mexico 36(2):148–153Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. González de Mejía
    • 1
  • A. L. Craigmill
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculdad de QuimicaUniversidad Autónoma de QuerétaroQuerétaroMexico
  2. 2.Environmental Toxicology ExtensionUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations