Effects of the anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, on newly-hatched blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, and other routinely tested estuarine crustaceans

  • V. K. Whiting
  • G. M. Cripe
  • J. E. Lepo


This study describes the use of newly hatched larvae of Callinectes sapidus (blue crab) in a 48-h acute toxicity test and compares their sensitivity to two other estuarine crustaceans (Mysidopsis bahia and Palaemonetes pugio) commonly used for evaluation of effects of potentially toxic materials. C. sapidus larvae were twice as sensitive to sodium dodecyl sulfate as ≤ 24-h post-release M. bahia, and five times more sensitive than ≤ 24-h-old P. pugio larvae. We found the blue crab toxicity test to be simple, rapid and accurate and it provides low variability and high reproducibility. Since the data indicate high sensitivity of this commercially important species to a reference toxicant and the potential impact on its survival during a critically sensitive developmental stage, we propose future research further evaluating C. sapidus as a potential toxicity test species.


Surfactant Waste Water Water Pollution Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Acute Toxicity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Armstrong DA, Buchanan DV, Mallon MH, Caldwell RS, Millemann RE (1976) Toxicity of the insecticide methoxychlor to the Dungeness Crab Cancer magister. Mar Biol 38:239–252Google Scholar
  2. ASTM (1988) Standard practice for conducting acute toxicity tests with fishes, macroinvertebrates, and amphibians. In: Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Vol. 11.04. Amer. Soc. Test. Mat. Philadelphia, PA, pp 378–397Google Scholar
  3. Bookhout CG, Costlow, Jr. JD (1975) Effects of mirex on the larval development of blue crab. Water Air Soil Pollut 4:113–126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bookhout CG, Costlow, Jr. JD, Monroe RJ (1979) Effects of methoxychlor on larval development of mud crab and blue crab. Water Air Soil Pollut 5:349–365Google Scholar
  5. — (1980) Kepone effects on larval development of mud crab and blue crab. Water Air Soil Pollut 13:57–77Google Scholar
  6. Bookhout CG, Monroe RJ, Forward, JR. RB, Costlow, Jr. JD (1984) Effects of hexavalent chromium on development of crabs, Rhithropanopeus harrisii and Callinectes sapidus. Water Air Soil Pollut 21:199–216Google Scholar
  7. Conner PM (1972) Acute toxicity of heavy metals to some marine larvae. Mar Pollut Bull 3:190–192Google Scholar
  8. Costlow, Jr. JD, Bookhout CG (1959) The larval development of Callinectes sapidus Rathbun reared in the laboratory. Biol Bull 116:373–396Google Scholar
  9. Cripe GM (1994) Comparative acute toxicities of several pesticides and metals to Mysidopsis bahia and post-larval Penaeus duorarum. Environ Toxicol Chem 13:1867–1872Google Scholar
  10. Epifanio CE (1988) Transport of invertebrate larvae between estuaries and the Continental Shelf. Amer Fish Soc Symp 3:104–114Google Scholar
  11. Fisheries of the United States 1994 (1995) Holliday MC, O'Bannon BK (eds) Current Fishery Statistics No. 9300. NOAA, U.S. Department of CommerceGoogle Scholar
  12. McKenney, Jr. CL, Costlow, Jr. JD (1981) The effects of salinity and mercury on developing megalopae and early crab stages of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus Rathbun. In: Vernberg J, Thurberg F, Calabrese A, Vernberg W (eds), Biological monitoring of marine pollutants. Academic Press NY. pp. 241–262Google Scholar
  13. Middaugh DP, Hemmer MJ (1984) Spawning of the tidewater silverside, Menidia peninsulae (Goode and Bean), in response to tidal and lighting schedules in the laboratory. Estuaries 7:139–148Google Scholar
  14. Nimmo DR, Blackman RR, Wilson, Jr. AJ, Forster J (1971) Toxicity and distribution of Aroclor 1254 in the pink shrimp Penaeus duorarum. Mar Biol 11(3):191–197Google Scholar
  15. Perry HM, Van Engel WA (1979) Proceedings of the Blue Crab Colloquium. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Biloxi, MSGoogle Scholar
  16. SAS Institute (1987) SAS®/STAT Guide for Personal Computers, Version Six Edition. Cary, NCGoogle Scholar
  17. Steele P, Perry HM (1990) The blue crab fishery of the Gulf of Mexico, United States: A regional management plan. Number 21. Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission, Ocean Springs, MSGoogle Scholar
  18. Stephan CE (1977) Methods for calculating an LC50. In: Mayer FL, Hamelink JL (eds) Aquatic toxicology and hazard evaluation. Amer Soc Test Mat, Philadelphia, PA, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  19. Sulkin SD (1974) Factors influencing blue crab population size: nutrition of larvae and migration of juveniles. Center for Environ Estuar Studies, Chesapeake Biol Lab Annu Rep Ref 74-125, 102 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. Sulkin SD and Van Heukelem W (1982) Larval recruitment in the crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun: an amendment to the concept of larval retention in estuaries. In: Kennedy VS (ed), Estuarine Comparisons. Academic Press, NY, pp 459–476Google Scholar
  21. Van Den Avyle MJ, Fowler DL (1984) Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic)-blue crab. US Fish Wildl Serv FW/OB-82/11.19. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS, TR EL-82-4. p 16Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc. 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. K. Whiting
    • 1
  • G. M. Cripe
    • 2
  • J. E. Lepo
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Environmental Diagnostics and BioremediationUniversity of West FloridaPensacolaUSA
  2. 2.National Health Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Gulf Ecology DivisionU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyGulf BreezeUSA

Personalised recommendations