Systematic analysis of aqueous ion requirements of Hyalella azteca: A standard artificial medium including the essential bromide ion

  • U. Borgmann


Sodium and bicarbonate are essential ions required by Hyalella azteca; their absence results in rapid mortality. Calcium and bromide are the only other two aqueous ions needed for long-term (10-week) survival when cotton gauze is present as a substrate and Tetra-Min fish food flakes are used as food. Calcium and bromide act synergistically; neither ion by itself improves survival, and high calcium concentrations may even be toxic in the absence of bromide. Magnesium and potassium improve growth, and potassium improves production of live young. Magnesium is toxic in the absence of calcium. Sulphate and chloride are not needed; either anion can be used when making up media with salts of the essential cations. A standard five-salt artificial medium is suitable for long-term experiments and culture of Hyalella, permitting standardized testing over time and among laboratories. Ionic composition, especially sodium and bromide, may limit the natural distribution of Hyalella and should be checked before attributing the absence of amphipods to pollutant effects.


Magnesium Bromide Ionic Composition High Calcium Natural Distribution 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • U. Borgmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Fisheries and OceansGreat Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic SciencesBurlingtonCanada

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