Differences in toxicity of the insecticide chlorpyrifos to six species of earthworms (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) in standardized soil tests

  • Wei-chun Ma
  • Jos Bodt
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References

  1. EEC (1985) European Economic Communities. Methods for the determination of ecotoxicity. I. C(L1)4: Toxicity for earthworms: Artificial soil test. Annex V, Part C. EEC Directive 79/831. DG XI/12 8/82 (final), Brussels.Google Scholar
  2. Hamilton MA, Runo RC, Thurton RV (1977) Trimmed Spearman-Kärber method for estimating median lethal concentrations in toxicity bioassays. Environ Sci Technol 11: 714–719; correction. Environ Sci Technol 12: 417 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. Haque A, Ebing W (1983) Toxicity determination of pesticides to earthworms in the soil substrate. PflKrankh PflSchutz 90: 395–408.Google Scholar
  4. Ma Wei-chun (1983) Sublethal toxic effects of copper on growth, reproduction and litter breakdown activity in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, with observations on the influence of temperature and soil pH. Environ Pollut (A) 33: 207–219.Google Scholar
  5. OECD (1984) Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Guideline for testing of chemicals, No. 207. Earthworm acute toxicity tests. Adopted April 1984.Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei-chun Ma
    • 1
  • Jos Bodt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EcotoxicologyInstitute for Forestry and Nature Research (IBN-DLO)ArnhemThe Netherlands

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