Human Genetics

, Volume 96, Issue 2, pp 151–154

Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and drinking behavior of Chinese living in Shanghai

  • Taro Muramatsu
  • Wang Zu-Cheng
  • Fang Yi-Ru
  • Hu Kou-Bao
  • Yan Heqin
  • Koichi Yamada
  • Susumu Higuchi
  • Shoji Harada
  • Hiroaki Kono
Original Investigation

Abstract

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), the principal enzymes responsible for oxidative metabolism of ethanol, exist in multiple, genetically determined molecular forms. Widely different kinetic properties in some of these isozymes account for the individual differences in alcohol sensitivity. In this study we used the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method to determine the genotypes of the ADH2 and ALDH2 loci of alcoholic and nonalcoholic Chinese living in Shanghai. We also investigated the subjects' drinking patterns by means of semistructured interviews. The alcoholics had significantly lower frequencies of the ADH22 and ALDH22 alleles than did the nonalcoholics, suggesting the inhibitory effects of these alleles for the development of alcoholism. In the nonalcoholic subjects, ADH22 had little, if any, effect, despite the significant effect of the ALDH22 allele in decreasing the alcohol consumption of the individual. Taken together, these results fit the proposed hypothesis for the development of alcoholism, i.e., drinking behavior is greatly influenced by the individual's gentoypes of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, and the risk of becoming alcoholic is proportionate with the ethanol consumption of the individual.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bosron WF, Li T-K (1986) Genetic polymorphism of human liver alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase, and their relationship to alcohol metabolism and alcoholism. Hepatology 6:502–510Google Scholar
  2. Bosron WF, Li T-K (1988) Catalytic and structural properties of the human liver ββ alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes. In: Kuriyama K, Takada A, Ishii H (eds) Biomedical and social aspects of alcohol and alcoholism. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 31–34Google Scholar
  3. Crabb DW, Edenberg HJ, Bosron WF, Li T-K (1989) Genotypes for aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency and alcohol sensitivity: the inactive ALDH22 allele is dominant. J Clin Invest 83:314–316Google Scholar
  4. Harada S (1992) New strategy for the detection of ALDH2 mutant. In: Association for the Study of Alcohol Metabolism and the Liver (eds) Alcohol metabolism and the liver. Toyo Shoten, Tokyo, pp 12–14Google Scholar
  5. Harada S, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW (1981) Aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency as a cause of facial flushing reaction to alcohol in Japanese. Lancet II:982Google Scholar
  6. Harada S, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW, Takagi S, Ishikawa B (1982) Possible protective role against alcoholism for aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme deficiency in Japan. Lancet II:827Google Scholar
  7. Higuchi S (1995) Polymorphism of ethanol metabolizing enzyme genes and alcoholism. Alcohol Alcohol (in press)Google Scholar
  8. Higuchi S, Muramatsu T, Shigemori K, Saito M, Kono H, Dufour MC, Harford TC (1992) The relationship between low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase phenotype and drinking behavior in Japanese. J Stud Alcohol 53:170–175Google Scholar
  9. Nakamura K, Tanaka A, Takano T (1993) Social cost of alcohol abuse in Japan. J Stud Alcohol 54:618–625Google Scholar
  10. Takeshita T, Morimoto K, Mao X-Q, Hashimoto T, Furuyama J (1994) Characterization of the three genotypes of low Km aldehyde dehydroaenase in a Japanese population. Hum Genet 94:217–223Google Scholar
  11. Thomasson HR, Edenberg HJ, Crabb DW, Mai X-L, Jerome RE, Li T-K, Wang S-P, Lin Y-T, Lu R-B, Yin S-J (1991) Alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase genotypes and alcoholism in Chinese men. Am J Hum Genet 48:677–681Google Scholar
  12. Xu Y, Carr LG, Bosron WF, Li T-K, Edenberg HJ (1988) Genotyping of human alcohol dehydrogenases at the ADH2 and ADH3 loci following DNA sequence amplification. Genomics 2:209–214Google Scholar
  13. Yamamoto K, Ueno Y, Mizoi Y, Tatsuno Y (1993) Genetic polymorphism of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase and the effects of alcohol metabolism. Jpn J Alcohol Drug Depend 28:13–25Google Scholar
  14. Yoshida A, Huang I-Y, Ikawa M (1984) Molecular abnormality of an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase variant commonly found in Orientals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:258–261Google Scholar
  15. Yoshida A, Hsu L, Yasunami M (1991) Genetics of human alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Pros Nucleic Acids Res Mol Biol 40:255–287Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Taro Muramatsu
    • 1
  • Wang Zu-Cheng
    • 2
  • Fang Yi-Ru
    • 2
  • Hu Kou-Bao
    • 2
  • Yan Heqin
    • 2
  • Koichi Yamada
    • 1
  • Susumu Higuchi
    • 1
  • Shoji Harada
    • 3
  • Hiroaki Kono
    • 1
  1. 1.National Institute on Alcoholism, Kurihama National HospitalKanagawaJapan
  2. 2.Shanghai Mental Health CenterShanghaiChina
  3. 3.Institute of Community Medicine, University of TsukubaIbarakiJapan

Personalised recommendations