, Volume 5, Issue 4, pp 267–272 | Cite as

Effects of manipulation of litter and humus layers on ectomycorrhizal colonization potential in Scots pine stands of different age

  • J. Baar
  • F. W. de Vries
Original Paper


Effects of manipulation of litter and humus layers (removal, doubling and control treatments) on the colonization potential of ectomycorrhizal fungi were studied in two secondary stands of Pinus sylvestris (5 and 18 years old) in The Netherlands. Five-mont-hold, sterile-grown Scots pine seedlings, inoculated with Laccaria bicolor, Paxillus involutus or Rhizopogon luteolus and noninoculated seedlings were used as baits. The seedlings were harvested after one growing season. For comparison, sporocarps of ectomycorrhizal fungi were also investigated. Genus composition on the seedlings was independent of initial inoculum, but determined by both treatment and age of the stands. In both stands, removal of litter and humus layers increased, and addition of organic material decreased the number of ectomycorrhizal types on the seedlings. Not all indigenous genera were observed by either outplanting seedlings or sporocarp surveys.

Key words

Colonization potential Ectomycorrhizal fungi Litter and humus layer Pinus sylvestris 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agerer R (1987) Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn, Schwäbisch GmündGoogle Scholar
  2. Alexander IJ, Bigg WL (1981) Light microscopy of ectomycorrhizas using glycol methacrylate. Trans Br Mycol Soc 77:425–429Google Scholar
  3. Alvarez IF, Rowney DL, Cobb FW Jr (1979) Mycorrhizae and growth of white fir seedlings in mineral soil with and without organic layers in a California forest. Can J For Res 9:311–315Google Scholar
  4. Arnebrant K (1991) Effects of forest fertilization on soil microorganisms. PhD thesis, University of LundGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnebrant K, Söderström B (1992) Effects of different fertilizer treatments on ectomycorrhizal colonization potential in two Scots pine forests in Sweden. For Ecol Manag 53:77–89Google Scholar
  6. Baar J, Kuyper TW (1993) Litter removal in forests and effect on mycorrhizal fungi. In: Pegler DN, Boddy L, Ing B, Kirk PM (eds) Fungi of Europe: investigation, recording and mapping. Kew Gardens, London, pp 275–286Google Scholar
  7. Baar J, Ozinga WA, Kuyper TW (1994a) Spatial distribution of Laccaria bicolor genets reflected by sporocarps after removal of litter and humus layers in a Pinus sylvestris forest. Mycol Res 98:726–728Google Scholar
  8. Baar J, Ozinga WA, Sweers IL, Kuyper TW (1994b) Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of needle litter and grass extracts on the growth of some ectomycorrhizal fungi. Soil Biol Biochem 26:1073–1079Google Scholar
  9. Dahlberg A, Stenström E (1991) Dynamic changes in nursery and indigenous mycorrhiza of Pinus sylvestris seedlings planted out in forest and clearcuts. Plant Soil 136:73–86Google Scholar
  10. Fleming LV, Deacon JW, Last FT (1986) Ectomycorrhizal succession in a Scottish birch wood. In: Gianinazzi-Pearson V, Gianinazzi S (eds) Physiological and genetical aspects of mycorrhizae. INRA, Paris, pp 259–264Google Scholar
  11. Grosse-Brauckmann H, Grosse-Brauckmann G (1978) Zur Pilzflora der Umgebung von Darmstadt vor 50 Jahren und heute (ein Vergleich der floristischen Befunde Franz Kallenbachs aus der Zeit von 1918 bis 1942 mit dem gegenwärtigen Vorkommen der Arten). Z Mykol 44:257–269Google Scholar
  12. Ingleby K, Mason PA, Last FT, Fleming LV (1990) Identification of ectomycorrhizas. ITE research publication no 5, London, pp 1–112Google Scholar
  13. Markkola AM, Ohtonen R (1988) The effect of acid deposition on fungi in forest humus. In: Jansen AE, Dighton J, Bresser AHM (eds) Ectomycorrhizae and acid rain. Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, pp 122–126Google Scholar
  14. Meyer FH (1987) Extreme Standorte und Ektomykorrhiza (insbesondere Cenococcum geophilum). Angew Bot 61:39–46Google Scholar
  15. Newman EI (1966) A method of estimating the total length in a root sample. J Appl Ecol 3:139–145Google Scholar
  16. Newton AC (1992) Towards a functional classification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 2:75–79Google Scholar
  17. Ohenoja E (1988) Effect of forest management procedures on fungal fruitbody production in Finland. Acta Bot Fenn 136:81–84Google Scholar
  18. Read DJ (1991) Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Nature's response to the “law of the minimum”. In: Hawksworth DL (ed) Frontiers in mycology. CAB International, Wallingford, UKGoogle Scholar
  19. Schoeneberger MM, Perry DA (1983) The effect of soil disturbance on growth and ectomycorrhizae of Douglas-fir and western hemlock seedlings: a greenhouse bioassay. Can J For Res 12:343–353Google Scholar
  20. Siegel S, Castellan NJ (1988) Nonparametric statistics for the behavioral sciences. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1981) Biometry, 2nd edn. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  22. Stenström E (1990) Ecology of mycorrhizal Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Aspects of colonization and growth. PhD thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  23. Termorshuizen AJ (1990) Decline of carpophores of mycorrhizal fungi in stands of Pinus sylvestris. PhD thesis, Agricultural University WageningenGoogle Scholar
  24. Termorshuizen AJ (1991) Succession of mycorrhizal fungi in stands of Pinus sylvestris in the Netherlands. J Veg Sci 2:555–564Google Scholar
  25. Tyler G (1991) Effects of litter treatments on the sporophore production of beech forest macrofungi. Mycol Res 95:1137–1139Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Baar
    • 1
  • F. W. de Vries
    • 1
  1. 1.Biological Station, Agricultural UniversityWijsterThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations