The mechanism of resistance to paraquat is strongly temperature dependent in resistant Hordeum leporinum Link and H. glaucum Steud.
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Paraquat-resistant biotypes of the closely-related weed species Hordeum leporinum Link and H. glaucum Steud. are highly resistant to paraquat when grown during the normal winter growing season. However, when grown and treated with paraquat in summer, these biotypes are markedly less resistant to paraquat. This reduced resistance to paraquat in summer is primarily a result of increased temperature following herbicide treatment. The mechanism governing this decrease in resistance at high temperature was examined in H. leporinum. No differences were observed between susceptible and resistant biotypes in the interaction of paraquat with isolated thylakoids when assayed at 15, 25, or 35 °C. About 98 and 65% of applied paraquat was absorbed through the leaf cuticle of both biotypes at 15 and 30 °C, respectively. Following application to leaves, more herbicide was translocated in a basipetal direction in the susceptible biotype compared to the resistant biotype at 15 °C. However, at 30 °C more paraquat was translocated in a basipetal direction in the resistant biotype. Photosynthetic activity of young leaf tissue from within the leaf sheath which had not been directly exposed to paraquat was measured 24 h after treatment of plants with para. quat. This activity was inhibited in the susceptible biotype when plants were maintained at either 15 °C or 30 °C after treatment. In contrast, photosynthetic activity of such tissue of the resistant biotype was not inhibited when plants were maintained at 15 °C after treatment, but was inhibited at 30 °C. The mechanism of resistance in this biotype of H. leporinum correlates with decreased translocation of paraquat and decreased penetration to the active site. This mechanism is temperature sensitive and breaks down at higher temperatures.
Key wordsHerbicide translocation Hordeum (herbicide resistance) Paraquat resistance Photosystem I
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