Advertisement

Space Science Reviews

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 319–412 | Cite as

Geomagnetic pulsations

  • Takao Saito
Article

Conclusion

In writing this review paper the author has been aware that although the present international classification on geomagnetic pulsations (see Table I) had been really useful for several years since the Berkeley Meeting, it seems unsuitable for the up-to-date pulsation study. This is mainly due to the fact that it depends only on the period and waveform of the pulsations. For example, (1) occurrence of PP type of Pc1 even in the international Pc3 range (Heacock, 1966), (2) PP and CE getting mixed in a common period band (cf. 2.7), (3) similar mixing tendency of Pc3 with Pc4 (cf. 3.3 or Figure 21), (4) subtypes of Pi pulsations having common period ranges but different source mechanisms, (5) existence of various types of pulsations which can be classified neither to Pc nor to Pi (cf. Section 6), and so on. Hence the author feels that a new pulsation classification based on physical image on the occurrence models is really needed now.

According to the international definition which has a period range of pulsations from 0.2 (5 Hz) to 600 sec, a part of the following electromagnetic field fluctuations called ELF emissions and ELF whistlers should belong to geomagnetic pulsations. ELF emissions are at times observed near 4 Hz and 9 Hz. They are so termed because of the difference between these frequencies and the Schumann resonance frequencies of 8 and 14 Hz (Yanagihara and Shimizu, 1969; Polk, 1969). Another type, ELF whistlers, exhibit either rising, falling or fluctuating tones from about 2 Hz to probably a few tens of Hz (Duffus, Nasmyth et al., 1958; Yamashita, 1967; Glangeaud, 1967; Yanagihara and Shimizu, 1969). In this review paper, however, both ELF emissions and whistlers have not been reviewed, since most of these seem to be out of the international frequency range so far as present observational knowledge is concerned. Some of the Pc6 and Dp2, involved in the international period range of pulsations, have also not been commented on, but the reader is advised to refer to Herron (1967) and Nishida (1968), respectively, for more detail.

It has been frequently pointed out in this paper that latitudinal dependence of pulsation amplitude is one of the most important clues for seeking the model of excitation and propagation of HM and EM waves, but that this dependence has not been precisely obtained so far owing to the difference in geomagnetic longitude of the pulsation stations (for example, see Figure 40). Cooperative observations based on standardized magnetometers are eagerly desired at stations which are densely arranged along the same magnetic meridian, even if the observation is temporal.

As already reviewed, various conflicting models have been proposed for each type of pulsation. On the occurrence of pc's, for example, there are two main conflicting models. In the first model, Pc2, 3, and 4 (Troitskaya, 1967; Patel and Hastings, 1968; and others) or Pc3 and 4 (Radoski and Carovillano, 1966) are related to one and the same resonance system and the difference in the type of these pc's is attributed to an effect of geomagnetic activity on the size of this system. In the second model, Pc2, 3, 4 and 5 are related to three or four different resonant systems (Jacobs and Sinno, 1960b; Hirasawa and Nagata, 1966; Kato, Mori et al., 1968; and others). Most of the conflict among such models seems to be removable by combining more thorough theoretical studies and correct dynamic spectrum analyses of the data at the polar region, auroral zone, sub-auroral zone, and middle and low latitudes, for various geomagnetic disturbance conditions.

Keywords

Period Range Auroral Zone Geomagnetic Pulsation Common Period Schumann Resonance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Afanasieva, V. I.: 1961, ‘Short-Period Pulsations of the Magnetic Field of the Earth’, in Short-Period Pulsations of the Earth's Electromagnetic Field, No. 3, Publishing House, Acad. Sci. USSR, pp. 5–10.Google Scholar
  2. Akasofu, S-I.: 1965, ‘Attenuation of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere’, Radio Sci. 69D, 361–366.Google Scholar
  3. Angenheister, G.: 1912, ‘Über die Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit magnetischer Störungen und Pulsationen. Bericht über die erdmagnetischen Schnellregistrierungen in Apia (Samoa), Batavia, Cheltenham, und Tsingtau in September 1911’, in Göttingen Nach. Ges. Wiss., pp. 568–581.Google Scholar
  4. Annexstad, J. O. and Wilson, C. R.: 1968, ‘Characteristics of Pg Micropulsations at Conjugate Points’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1805–1818.Google Scholar
  5. Baransky, L. N., Nazak, B. N., and Geller, L. A.: 1966, ‘Velocity of Propagation of Pc1-Type Hydromagnetic Oscillations’, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR.Google Scholar
  6. Barcus, J. R. and Rosenberg, T. J.: 1965, ‘Observations on the Spatial Structure of Pulsating Electron Precipitation Accompanying Low Frequency Hydromagnetic Disturbances in the Auroral Zone’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 1707–1716.Google Scholar
  7. Barnes, A.: 1966, ‘Collisionless Damping of Hydromagnetic Waves’, Phys. Fluids 9, 1483–1495.Google Scholar
  8. Benioff, H.: 1960, ‘Observations of Geomagnetic Fluctuations in the Period Range 0.3 to 120 Seconds’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 1413–1422.Google Scholar
  9. Berger, S.: 1963, ‘Giant Pulsations in the Magnetic Field and Pulsating Aurora’, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 867–868.Google Scholar
  10. Berthold, W. K., Harris, A. K., and Hope, H. J.: 1960a, ‘Correlated Micropulsations at Magnetic Sudden Commencements’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2, 613–618.Google Scholar
  11. Berthold, W. K., Harris, A. K., and Hope, H. J.: 1960b, ‘World-Wide Effects of Hydromagnetic Waves Due to Augus’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2233–2239.Google Scholar
  12. Binsack, N. J.: 1967, ‘Plasmapause Observations with the M.I.T. Experiment on Imp 2’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5231–5238.Google Scholar
  13. Bol'shakova, O. V.: 1966, ‘Variation in Solar Wind Intensity with Phase of Solar Activity Cycle from Data on Stable Oscillations of the Geomagnetic Field’, Soviet Astron. AJ. 9, 666–667.Google Scholar
  14. Bomke, H. A., Ramm, W. J., Goldblatt, S., and Klemes, V.: 1960, ‘Global Hydromagnetic Wave Ducts in the Exosphere’, Nature 185, 299–300.Google Scholar
  15. Breiner, S.: 1964, ‘Piezomagnetic Effect at the Time of Local Earthquakes’, Nature 202, 790–791.Google Scholar
  16. Campbell, W. H.: 1959a, ‘A Study of Micropulsations in the Earth's Magnetic Field’, Inst. Geophys., Univ. Calif. Los Angeles, Sci. Rep. 1, Nour 333(47), 1–138.Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, W. H.: 1959b, ‘Studies of Magnetic Field Micropulsations with Periods of 5 to 30 Seconds’, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1819–1826.Google Scholar
  18. Campbell, W. H.: 1960a, ‘Magnetic Micropulsations and Pulsating Aurora’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 784.Google Scholar
  19. Campbell, W. H.: 1960b, ‘Magnetic Micropulsations, Pulsating Aurora, and Ionospheric Absorption’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 1833–1834.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell, W. H.: 1960c, ‘Magnetic Micropulsations Accompanying Meteor Activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 2241–2246.Google Scholar
  21. Campbell, W. H.: 1962, ‘Some Auroral Zone Disturbances at Time of Magnetic Micropulsation Storms’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-I, Int. Conf. CR & ES Pt. I, 112–116.Google Scholar
  22. Campbell, W. H.: 1963, ‘Natural Electromagnetic Field Fluctuations in the 3.0 to 0.02-cps Range’, Proc. IEEE 51, 1337–1342.Google Scholar
  23. Campbell, W. H.: 1964, ‘A Study of Geomagnetic Effects Associated with Auroral Zone Electron Precipitation Observed by Balloons’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 16, 41–61.Google Scholar
  24. Campbell, W. H.: 1965, ‘A Review of Seven Studies of Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated with Auroral Zone Disturbance Phenomena’, Radio Sci., J. Res. Natl. Bur Std./USNC-URSI 69D, 1187.Google Scholar
  25. Campbell, W. H.: 1967a, ‘Low Attenuation of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Ionosphere and Implied Characteristics in the Magnetosphere for Pc1 Events’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3429–3445.Google Scholar
  26. Campbell, W. H.: 1967b, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations’, in Physics of Geomagnetic Phenomena (ed. by S. Matsushita and W. H. Campbell), Vol. 2, pp. 821–909.Google Scholar
  27. Campbell, W. H.: 1968, ‘Rapid Geomagnetic Field Variations Observed at Conjugate Locations’, Radio Sci. 3, 726–739.Google Scholar
  28. Campbell, W. H. and Matsushita, S.: 1962, ‘Auroral-Zone Geomagnetic Micropulsations with Periods of 5 to 30 Seconds’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 555–573.Google Scholar
  29. Campbell, W. H. and Stiltner, E. C.: 1965, ‘Some Characteristics of Geomagnetic Pulsations at Frequencies near 1 c/rs, Radio Sci., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std./USNC-URSI 69D, 1117–1132.Google Scholar
  30. Campbell, W. H. and Young, J. M.: 1963, ‘Auroral-Zone Observations of Infrasonic Pressure Waves Related to Ionospheric Disturbances and Geomagnetic Activity’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 5909–5916.Google Scholar
  31. Carpenter, D. L.: 1962, ‘Electron-Density Variations in the magnetosphere Deduced from Whistler Data’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3345–3360.Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter, D. L.: 1966, ‘Whistler Studies of the Plasmapause in the Magnetosphere, Part I, Temporal Variation in the Position of the Knee and Some Evidence on Plasma Motions near the Knee’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 693–709.Google Scholar
  33. Chan, K. L., Kanellakos, D. P., and Villard Jr., O. G.: 1962. ‘Correlations of Short-Period Fluctuations of the Earth's Magnetic Field and Instantaneous Frequency Measurements’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 2066–2072.Google Scholar
  34. Christoffel, D. A. and Linford, J. G.: 1966a, ‘Diurnal Properties of the Horizontal Geomagnetic Micropulsation Field in New Zealand’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 891–897.Google Scholar
  35. Christoffel, D. A. and Linford, J. G.: 1966b, ‘Reply (1), (Diurnal Properties of the Horizontal Geomagnetic Micropulsation Field in New Zealand)’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 4706.Google Scholar
  36. Cornwall, J. M.: 1965, ‘Cyclotron Instabilities and Electromagnetic Emission in the Ultra Low Frequency and Very Low Frequency Ranges’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 61–69.Google Scholar
  37. Cornwall, J. M.: 1966, ‘Micropulsations and the Outer Radiation Zone’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2185–2200.Google Scholar
  38. Cummings, W. D. and Coleman, P. J., Jr.: 1968, ‘Magnetic Field in the Magnetopause and Vicinity at Synchronous Altitude’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 5699–5718.Google Scholar
  39. Davis, T. N. and Sugiura, M.: 1966, ‘Auroral Electrojet Activity Index AE and Its Universal Time Variation’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 785–801.Google Scholar
  40. Dawson, J. A.: 1965, Geomagnetic Micropulsations with Emphasis Placed on the Properties and Interpretation of Pearls, Doctoral Thesis, University of Alaska, College, Alaska, pp. 1–120.Google Scholar
  41. Dessler, A. J.: 1958, ‘Large Amplitude Hydromagnetic Waves above the Ionosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 63, 507–511.Google Scholar
  42. Doubrovskiy, V. G.: 1961, ‘Rapid Geoelectric Variations and Their Regularities (According to the Observations in Ashkhabad)’, in Short-Period Pulsations of the Earth's Electromagnetic Field, No. 3, Publishing House, Acad. Sci. USSR, pp. 35–40.Google Scholar
  43. Dowden R. L.: 1966, ‘Micropulsation “Nose Whistler”, A Helium Explanation’, Planetary Space Sci. 14, 1273–1280.Google Scholar
  44. Dowden, R. L.: 1967, ‘Possible Helium Ion Effects in Micropulsation Spectrograms’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 2029–2031.Google Scholar
  45. Duffus, H. J., Nasmyth, P. W., Shand, J. A., and Wright, C. S.: 1958, ‘Sub-Audible Geomagnetic Fluctuations’, Nature 181, 1258–1259.Google Scholar
  46. Duffus, H. J., Shand, J. A., and Wright, C. S.: 1959, ‘Possible Causes of Geomagnetic Fluctuations Having a 6-sec Period’, Nature 183, 4673, 1473–1480.Google Scholar
  47. Duncan, R. A.: 1961, ‘Some Studies of Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 2087–2094.Google Scholar
  48. Dungey, J. W.: 1954, ‘Electrodynamics of the Outer Atmosphere’, Ionos. Res. Lab. The Pennsylvania State Univ. Sci. Rep. No. 69, 229–236.Google Scholar
  49. Eleman, T.: 1965, ‘The Response of Magnetic Instruments to Earthquake Waves’, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA Rept. X-612-65-265, pp. 1–49.Google Scholar
  50. Field, E. C. and Greifinger, C.: 1967a, ‘Geomagnetic Fluctuations Due to Impulse Sources with Applications to High-Altitude Nuclear Bursts’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 317–330.Google Scholar
  51. Field, E. C. and Greifinger, C.: 1967b, ‘Equatorial Transmission of Geomagnetic Micropulsations through the Ionosphere and Lower Exosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3223–3232.Google Scholar
  52. Fraser, B. J.: 1965, ‘Studies of Pc1 Geomagnetic Micropulsations Volume II, Diurnal and Storm-Time Variations in Hydromagnetic Emissions’, Final Report of Naval Research Lab., Washington, D.C., NONR(G)-00033-64, pp. 1–36.Google Scholar
  53. Freeman, J. W., Jr. and Maguire, J. J.: 1967, ‘Gross Local-Time Particle Asymmetries at the Synchronous Orbit Altitude’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 5257–5264.Google Scholar
  54. Fukunishi, H.: 1969, ‘On the Relation between Sweepers (IPDP) and Polar Magnetic Disturbances’, Paper Presented by Symposium on Disturbed Ionosphere Held at Institute of Space Aeronautical Science, University of Tokyo, Japan, on March 14.Google Scholar
  55. Fukunishi, H., Hirasawa, T., and Kokubun, S.: 1968, ‘Characteristics of Geomagnetic Pulsations in Low Latitudes’, Paper Presented to the 44th Annual Meeting of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity Held at Sendai, Japan, on Oct. 31.Google Scholar
  56. Gendrin, R.: 1963a, ‘Sur une théorie des pulsations rapides structurées calculées des fréquences observées’, Compt. Rend. 256, 4487–4490.Google Scholar
  57. Gendrin, G.: 1963b, ‘Sur une théorie des pulsations rapides structurées du champ magnétique terrestre’, Ann. Geophys. 19, 1–18.Google Scholar
  58. Gendrin, R.: 1967, ‘E.B.F. et micropulsations’, Ann. Geophys. 23, 299–311.Google Scholar
  59. Gendrin, R., Gokhberg, M., Lacourly, S., and Troitskaya, V.: 1966, ‘Apparition simultanée de pulsations magnétiques d'ultrabasse fréquence en phase en deux points conjugées’, Compt. Rend. 262, 845–848.Google Scholar
  60. Gendrin, R. E. and Troitskaya, V. A.: 1965, ‘Preliminary Results of a Micropulsation Experiment at Conjugate Points’, Radio Sci., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 69D, 1107.Google Scholar
  61. Glangeard, F.: 1967, ‘Mise en évidence, dans le spectre de fréquence d'un orage magnétique, d'une émission monochromatique de longue durée, à caractère mondial’, Compt. Rend. Paris 264, 1772–1775.Google Scholar
  62. Green, R. G.: 1967, ‘An Analysis of the Magnetic Effect from Shower Meteors’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 2309–2313.Google Scholar
  63. Greenstadt, E. W., Inouye, G. T., Green, I. M., and Judge, D. L.: 1967, ‘Vela 3 Magnetograms at 18 RE Structure and Pulsations in the Magnetosheath’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3855–3876.Google Scholar
  64. Greifinger, C. and Greifinger, P.: 1965, ‘Transmission of Micropulsations through the Lower Ionosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2217–2231.Google Scholar
  65. Harang, L.: 1932, ‘Observations of Micropulsations in the Magnetic Records at Tromso’, Terrest. Mag. 37, 57–61.Google Scholar
  66. Harang, L.: 1936, ‘Oscillations and Vibrations in Magnetic Record at High Latitude Stations’, Terrest. Mag. 41, 329–336.Google Scholar
  67. Harang, L.: 1939, ‘Pulsations in an Ionized Region at Height of 650–800 km During the Appearance of Giant Pulsations in the Geomagnetic Records’, Terrest. Mag. 44, 17–19.Google Scholar
  68. Hauwitz, M.: 1969, ‘Pi 2 Micropulsation Periods and the Auroral Electrojet Index, AE’, To be submitted to J. Geophys. Res. Google Scholar
  69. Heacock, R. R.: 1963, ‘Auroral Zone Telluric-Current Micropulsations, T < 20 Seconds’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 1871–1884.Google Scholar
  70. Heacock, R. R.: 1966, ‘The 4-Second Summertime Micropulsation Band at College’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 2763–2775.Google Scholar
  71. Heacock, R. R.: 1967a, ‘Evening Micropulsation Events with a Rising Midfrequency Characteristic’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 399–408.Google Scholar
  72. Heacock, R. R.: 1967b, ‘Two Subtypes of Type Pi Micropulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3905–3917.Google Scholar
  73. Heacock, R. R.: 1968, ‘Large Amplitude Pc 1 Events at College’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelect. 20, 263–269.Google Scholar
  74. Heacock, R. R. and Hessler, V. P.: 1962, ‘Pearl-Type Telluric Current Micropulsations at College’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3985–3996.Google Scholar
  75. Heacock, R. R. and Hessler, V. P.: 1963, ‘Telluric Current Micropulsation Bursts’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 953–954.Google Scholar
  76. Heacock, R. R. and Hessler, V. P.: 1965, ‘Pearl-Type Micropulsations Associated with Magnetic Storm Sudden Commencements’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 1103–1111.Google Scholar
  77. Heirtzler, J. R.: 1964, ‘A Summary of the Observed Characteristics of Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, in Natural Electromagnetic Phenomena below 30 kc/s (ed. by D. F. Bleil), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 351–372.Google Scholar
  78. Helliwell, R. A.: 1969, Private communication.Google Scholar
  79. Herron, T. J.: 1967, ‘An Average Geomagnetic Power Spectrum for the Period Range 4.5 to 12.900 Seconds (1)’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 759–761.Google Scholar
  80. Hirasawa, T.: 1969, Private communication.Google Scholar
  81. Hirasawa, T. and Nagata, T.: 1966, ‘Spectral Analysis of Geomagnetic Pulsations from 0.5 to 100 sec in Period for the Quiet Sun Condition’, Pure Appl. Phys. 65, 102–124.Google Scholar
  82. Hirasawa, T., Nishida, A., and Nagata, T.: 1966, ‘Changes in Pc 5 Periods Accompanying Sudden Impulses Resulting from the Magnetosphere Deformations’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 20, 51–55.Google Scholar
  83. Holmberg, E. R. R.: 1953, ‘Rapid Periodic Fluctuations of the Geomagnetic Field. 1’, Monthly Notices Roy. Astron. Soc. Geophys. Suppl. 6, 476–481.Google Scholar
  84. Hultqvist, B.: 1966, ‘Plasma Waves in the Frequency Range 0.001–10cps in the Earth's Magnetosphere and Ionosphere’, Space Sci. Rev. 5, 599–695.Google Scholar
  85. Hutton, R.: 1960, ‘Regular Micropulsations of the Earth's Field at the Equator’, Nature 186, 4729, 955–956.Google Scholar
  86. Jacobs, J. A.: 1968, ‘Pi Events with Particular Reference to Conjugate Point Phenomena’, Radio Sci. 3, 539–544.Google Scholar
  87. Jacobs, J. A. and Jolley, E. J.: 1962, ‘Geomagnetic Micropulsations with Periods 0.3–3 sec (‘Pearls’)’, Nature 194, 641–643.Google Scholar
  88. Jacobs, J. A. and Sinno, K.: 1960a, ‘Occurrence Frequency of Geomagnetic Micropulsations, Pc’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 107–113.Google Scholar
  89. Jacobs, J. A. and Sinno, K.: 1960b, ‘World Wide Characteristics of Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, Geophys. J. 3, 333–352.Google Scholar
  90. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1962, ‘Propagation of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Lower Exosphere and the Origin of Short Period Geomagnetic Pulsations’, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 24, 413–434.Google Scholar
  91. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1963, ‘Trapped Charged Particles as the Origin of Short Period Geomagnetic Pulsations’, Planetary Space Sci. 11, 869–878, 872(1)-(2).Google Scholar
  92. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1964a, ‘A Model of Geomagnetic Micropulsations with Long Periods’, Can. J. Phys. 42, 200–207.Google Scholar
  93. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1964b, ‘Micropulsation Whistler’, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 26, 825–829.Google Scholar
  94. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1966a, ‘Amplification of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Magnetosphere by a Cyclotron Instability Process with Applications to the Theory of Hydromagnetic Whistlers’, J. Atmospheric Sci. 28, 235–253.Google Scholar
  95. Jacobs, J. A. and Watanabe, T.: 1966b, ‘Doppler Frequency Changes in Radio Waves Propagating through a Moving Ionosphere’, Radio Sci. 1, 257–264.Google Scholar
  96. Jacobs, J. A. and Wright, C. S.: 1965, ‘Geomagnetic Micropulsation Results from Byrd Station and Great Whale River’, Can. J. Phys. 43, 2099–2122.Google Scholar
  97. Jacobs, J. A., Kato, Y., Matsushita, S., and Troitskaya, V. A.: 1964, ‘Classification of Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 180–181.Google Scholar
  98. Jenkins, A. W., Jr., Phillips, C. A., Jr., and Maple, E.: 1960, ‘Observed Magnetic Effects from Meteors’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 1617–1619.Google Scholar
  99. Judge, D. L. and Coleman, P. J., Jr.: 1962, ‘Observations of Low-Frequency Hydromagnetic Waves in the Distant Geomagnetic Field: Explorer 6’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 5071–5090.Google Scholar
  100. Kaneda, E., Kokubun, S., Oguti, T., and Nagata, T.: 1964, ‘Auroral Radar Echoes Associated with Pc-5’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18, 165–172.Google Scholar
  101. Kato, Y.: 1962, ‘Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, Australian J. Phys. 15, 70–85.Google Scholar
  102. Kato, Y.: 1969, Private communication.Google Scholar
  103. Kato, Y. and Akasofu, S.-I.: 1956, ‘Relationships between the Geomagnetic Micropulsation and the Solar UM Region’, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 9, 352.Google Scholar
  104. Kato, Y. and Ossaka, J.: 1951, ‘Time Variation of the Earth's Magnetic Field at the Time of Bay-Disturbance’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 3, 111–113.Google Scholar
  105. Kato, Y. and Saito, T.: 1958, ‘Investigation of the Magnetic Disturbance by the Induction Magnetograph. Part, on the Damped Type Rapid Pulsation Accompanying ssc’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 9, 99–112.Google Scholar
  106. Kato, Y. and Saito, T.: 1959, ‘Preliminary Studies on the Daily Behaviour of Rapid Pulsation’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 10, 4, 221–225.Google Scholar
  107. Kato, Y. and Saito, T.: 1962, ‘Morphological Study of Geomagnetic Pulsations’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 34–39.Google Scholar
  108. Kato, Y. and Saito, T.: 1964a, ‘Secular and Annual Variations in the Periods of Pc4 and Pc5’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18. Google Scholar
  109. Kato, Y. and Saito, T.: 1964b, ‘Observation of Pc 1 and Pi 1 by a Visual Type Induction Magnetometer at Middle Latitude Station, Onagawa’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18, 188–196.Google Scholar
  110. Kato, Y. and Sato, Y.: 1965, ‘Effect of the Anisotropic Ionosphere on the Hydromagnetic Oscillations’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 16, 123–145.Google Scholar
  111. Kato, Y. and Takei, S.: 1969, ‘HM Surface Waves’, Presented to Japan-US Scientific Cooperation (JUSCO) Conference Held at Kyoto, Japan, on March 19.Google Scholar
  112. Kato, Y. and Tamao, T.: 1962, ‘Hydromagnetic Waves in the Earth's Exosphere and Geomagnetic Pulsations’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 39–43.Google Scholar
  113. Kato, Y. and Utumi, T.: 1964, ‘Polarization of the Long Period Geomagnetic Pulsation, Pc 5’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18, 214–217.Google Scholar
  114. Kato, Y. and Watanabe, T.: 1954, ‘A Possible Explanation of the Cause of Giant Pulsations’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 6, 96–104.Google Scholar
  115. Kato, Y. and Watanabe, T.: 1956a, ‘Further Study on the Cause of Giant Pulsations’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 8, 1–10.Google Scholar
  116. Kato, Y. and Watanabe, T.: 1956b, ‘Studies on p.s.c.’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 10, 69–80.Google Scholar
  117. Kato, Y. and Watanabe, T.: 1957a, ‘Studies on Geomagnetic Pulsation, Pc’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 8, 1–22.Google Scholar
  118. Kato, Y. and Watanabe, T.: 1957b, ‘A Survey of Observational Knowledge of the Geomagnetic Pulsation’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 8, 157–185.Google Scholar
  119. Kato, Y., Ossaka, J., and Okuda, M.: 1953, ‘Investigation on the Magnetic Disturbance by the Induction Magnetograph, Part 3. On the Magnetic Storms’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 5, 85–122.Google Scholar
  120. Kato, Y., Saito, T., and Kondo, M.: 1960, ‘Geomagnetic Rapid Variations Observed at the Onagawa Magnetic Observatory during the International Geophysical Year’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 11, 1–49.Google Scholar
  121. Kato, Y., Saito, T., and Kondo, M.: 1961, ‘Geomagnetic Rapid Variations Observed at the Onagawa Magnetic Observatory during the International Geophysical Year, Part 2’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 12, 1–75.Google Scholar
  122. Kato, Y., Saito, T., and Sakurai, T.: 1968, ‘Frequency Analysis of Geomagnetic Pulsations at High and Low Latitudes’, Report Presented to Japan-US Scientific Cooperation (JUSCO) Conference Held at Honolulu, Hawaii, Feb.Google Scholar
  123. Kato, Y., Saito, T., and Sakurai, T.: 1969, ‘Gross Characteristics of Pi Pulsations’, Paper Presented to Japan, March 18.Google Scholar
  124. Kato, Y., Sakurai, T., and Saito, T.: 1968, ‘Solar Cycle Effect of Diurnal Variation in Pc 2, 3 Period’, Presented to the 44th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society of Geomagnetism and Geoelectricity Held at Sendai, Japan, on Nov. 2.Google Scholar
  125. Kato, Y., Tamao, T., and Saito, T.: 1959, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsation Accompanying the Intense Solar Flare’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 10, 4, 203–207.Google Scholar
  126. Kato, Y., Tanaka, M., and Sato, Y.: 1967, ‘On the Characteristics of the Beating Type Geomagnetic Pulsations in Pc 3 Range’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 19, 45–75.Google Scholar
  127. Kato, Y., Mori, Y., Saito, T., Sakurai, T., and Takei, S.: 1968, ‘ULF Phenomena and the Physical States of the Magnetosphere’, Proceedings of the Symposium of the International Active Sun Years, pp. 115–122.Google Scholar
  128. Kato, Y., Ossaka, J., Watanabe, T., Okuda, M., and Tamao, T.: 1955, ‘Investigation on the Magnetic Disturbance by the Induction Magnetograph. Part 5, On the Rapid Pulsation p.s.c.’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 7, 136–146.Google Scholar
  129. Kato, Y., Ossaka, J., Okuda, M., Watanabe, T., and Tamao, T.: 1956, ‘Investigation on the Magnetic Disturbance by the Induction Magnetograph. Part 6, On the Daily Variation and the 27-Day Recurrence Tendency in the Geomagnetic Pulsations’, Sci. Rep. Tokoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 8, 19–23.Google Scholar
  130. Kawamura, M.: 1969a, ‘On the Diurnal Variation in the Pc 3 Period at Kakioka’, Paper Presented to National ELF and ULF Symposium Held at Toyokawa, Japan, on Jan. 26.Google Scholar
  131. Kawamura, M.: 1969b, ‘Behavior of the Horizontal Disturbing Vector of the Pearl-Type Micropulsation in Lower Latitude’, Paper Presented to National ELF and ULF Symposium Held at Toyokawa, Japan, on Jan. 26.Google Scholar
  132. Kawamura, M., Kurusu, K., Oshima, H., and Yanagihara, K.: 1961, ‘On the Geomagnetic Pulsations pc-(1) World-wide Distribution of the Historical Disturbing Vector’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 10, 7–13.Google Scholar
  133. Kenney, J. F. and Johnson, L. E.: 1966, ‘Micropulsation Measurements during the Puget Sound Earthquake of April 29, 1965’, Nature 211, 1041–1043.Google Scholar
  134. Kenney, J. F. and Knaflich, H. B.: 1967, ‘A Systematic Study of Structured Micropulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 2857–2869.Google Scholar
  135. Kenney, J. F., Deaton, T. K., and Miller, J. E.: 1967, ‘Improved Displays for Measuring Power Spectra of Complex Nonstationary Signals’, Rev. Sci. Instr. 38, 665–667.Google Scholar
  136. Keys, J. G.: 1965, ‘Pulsating Auroral Radar Echoes and Their Possible Hydromagnetic Association’, J. Atmospheric Terrestr. Phys. 27, 385–393.Google Scholar
  137. Kitamura, T.: 1963, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations and the Exosphere, Part 1, Statistical Results’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 17, 67–76.Google Scholar
  138. Kitamura, T. and Jacobs, J. A.: 1968, ‘Determination of the Magnetospheric Plasma Density by the Use of Long-period Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, J. Geomag. Geoelec. Japan 20, 33–44.Google Scholar
  139. Knaflich, H. B. and Kenney, J. F.: 1967, ‘IPDP Events and Their Generation in the Magnetosphere’, Earth Planetary Sci. Letters 2, 453–459.Google Scholar
  140. Kokubun, S. and Nagata, T.: 1965, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsation pc-5 in and near the Auroral Zones’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 19, 158–176.Google Scholar
  141. Kokubun, S. and Oguti, T.: 1968, ‘Hydromagnetic Emissions Associated with Storm Sudden Commencements’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 22, 45–59.Google Scholar
  142. Lacourly, S., Gendrin, R., and Floch, P. L.: 1965, ‘Relation d'amplitude des oscillations hydromagnétiques reçues en deux points conjugues de haute latitude’, Ann. Geophys. 21, 467–468.Google Scholar
  143. Li, Ti-Scu, Prince, C. E., Jr., and Bostick, F. X.: 1964, ‘Hydromagnetic Wave Propagation and Theoretical Power Spectra’, Tech. Rep. No. 136, Electr. Engin. Res. Lab., Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas, pp. 1–28.Google Scholar
  144. Liemohn, H. B., Kenney, J. F., and Knaflich, H. B.: 1967, ‘Proton Densities in the Magnetospheres from Pearl Dispersion Measurements’, Boeing Sci. Res. Lab. Document, DI-82-0615, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  145. Lokken, J. E.: 1964, ‘Instrumentation for Receiving Electromagnetic Noise below 3,000 cps’, in Natural Electromagnetic Phenomena below 30 kc/s (ed. by D. F. Bleil), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 373–428.Google Scholar
  146. MacDonald, G. J. F.: 1961, ‘Spectrum of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Exosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3639–3670.Google Scholar
  147. Maeda Kaichi and Watanabe, T.: 1964, ‘Pulsating Auroral and Infrasonic Waves in the Polar Atmosphere’, J. Atmospheric Sci. 21, 15–29.Google Scholar
  148. Manchester, R. N.: 1966, ‘Propagation of pc 1 Micropulsations from High to Low Latitudes’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3749–3754.Google Scholar
  149. Maple, E.: 1959, ‘Geomagnetic Oscillations at Middle Latitudes. Part 1, The Observational Data’, J. Geophys. Res. 64, 1395–1404.Google Scholar
  150. Mather, K. B., Gauss, E. J., and Cresswell, G. R.: 1964, ‘Diurnal Variations in the Power Spectrum and Polarization of Telluric Currents at Conjugate Points, L = 2.6’, Australian J. Phys. 17, 373–388.Google Scholar
  151. Matsushita, S.: 1960, ‘Studies of Sudden Commencements of Geomagnetic Storms Using IGY Data from United States Stations’, J. Geophys. Res. 65, 1423–1435.Google Scholar
  152. Matsushita, S.: 1962, ‘On Geomagnetic Sudden Commencements, Sudden Impulses, and Storm Durations’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3753–3778.Google Scholar
  153. Matsushita, S.: 1963, ‘On the Notations for Geomagnetic Micropulsation’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4369–4372.Google Scholar
  154. Matsushita, S.: 1965, ‘Ionospheric Perturbation (the Roles Played by the Ionosphere in Geomagnetic Pulsations)’, Radio Sci. 69D, 1149–1159.Google Scholar
  155. Matuura, N.: 1961, ‘Characteristics of Large Amplitude Geomagnetic Pulsations’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 15, 192–214.Google Scholar
  156. Matveyeva, E. T. and Troitskaya, V. A.: 1965, ‘General Patterns of Pearl-type Pulsations’, Geomag. Aeronom. 5, 846–850.Google Scholar
  157. McNicol, R. W. E., Mainstone, J. S., and Wilkie, J. R.: 1963, ‘Micropulsation Studies at Brisbane, Queensland. II, Pulsations of the pc and pt Type’, Proceedings of the International Conference on the Ionosphere, Bartholomew Press, England, pp. 169–176.Google Scholar
  158. McPherron, R. L. and Ward, S. H.: 1967, ‘Correlation between Occurrence of Pearl Pulsations and Interplanetary Magnetic Field Sector Boundaries’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 393–398.Google Scholar
  159. McPherron, R. L., Parks, G. K., Coroniti, F. V., and Ward, S. H.: 1968, ‘Studies of the Magnetospheric Substorm. 2, Correlated Magnetic Micropulsations and Electron Precipitation Occurring during Auroral Substorms’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1697–1713.Google Scholar
  160. Milton, D. W., McPherron, R. L., Anderson, K. A., and Ward, S. H.: 1967, ‘Direct Correspondence between X-ray Microbursts and Impulsive Micropulsations (1)’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 414–417.Google Scholar
  161. Nagata, T. and Fukunishi, H.: 1968, ‘Dependence on Geomagnetic Activity of Magnetic Pulsation Frequency of Pc3 and Pc4 Range’, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 15, 69–78.Google Scholar
  162. Nagata, T., Kokubun, S., and Iijima, T.: 1963, ‘Geomagnetically Conjugate Relationships of Giant Pulsations at Syowa Base, Antarctica and Reykjavik, Iceland’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 4621–4625.Google Scholar
  163. Namgaladze, A. N., Raspopov, O. M., and Roldugin, V. K.: 1967, ‘Relationship between Pi2 Pulsations of the Geomagnetic Field and Pulsations in the Intensity of Auroral Luminescence’, Geomag. Aeronom. 7, 302–304.Google Scholar
  164. Ness, N. F., Skillman, T. L., Scearce, G. S., and Heppner, J. P.: 1962, ‘Magnetic Field Fluctuations on the Earth and in Space’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 27–33.Google Scholar
  165. Nishida, A.: 1964, ‘Theory of Irregular Magnetic Micropulsations Associated with a Magnetic Bay’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 947–954.Google Scholar
  166. Nishida, A.: 1968, ‘Geomagnetic Dp2 Fluctuations and Associated Magnetospheric Phenomena’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 1795–1803.Google Scholar
  167. Nojima, Y., Nakagomi, Y., and Nagasawa, S.: 1964, ‘Relation between the Recurrent Magnetic Disturbance and the Solar Phenomena’, Rep. Ionosph. Space Res. Japan 18, 319–327.Google Scholar
  168. Obayashi, T.: 1958, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations and the Earth's Outer Atmosphere’, Ann. Geophys. 14, 464–474.Google Scholar
  169. Obayashi, T.: 1964, ‘Hydromagnetic Whistlers’, Tech. Rept. Ionos. Res. Lab., Kyoto Univ., Kyoto, pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  170. Obayashi, T. and Jacobs, J. A.: 1958, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsation and the Earth's Outer Atmosphere’, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc., 1, 53–63.Google Scholar
  171. Oguti, T.: 1963, ‘Inter-relations among the Upper Atmosphere Disturbance Phenomena in the Auroral Zone’, JARE Sci. Rep., Ser. A, Aeronomy, No. 1, 1–82.Google Scholar
  172. Oguti, T.: 1969, ‘Distribution of Natural Waves in the Magnetosphere’, Paper Presented to Japan-US Scientific Cooperation (JUSCO) Symposium Held in Kyoto, Japan, on March 19.Google Scholar
  173. Ohl, A. I.: 1962, ‘Pulsations during Sudden Commencements of Magnetic Storms and Long Period Pulsations in High Latitudes’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 24–26.Google Scholar
  174. Ohl, A. I.: 1963, ‘Long Period Geomagnetic Field Pulsations’, Geomag. Aeronomy 3, 113–120.Google Scholar
  175. Oshima, H.: 1961, ‘An Attempt to Give an Index to the Activity of pc-type Pulsations and its Application to the Analysis of Geomagnetic Storms’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 10, 1–5.Google Scholar
  176. Paetzold, H. R.: 1962, ‘Corpuscular Heating of the Upper Atmosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 2741–2744.Google Scholar
  177. Patel, V. L.: 1965, ‘Low Frequency Hydromagnetic Waves in the Magnetosphere: Explorer XII’, Planetary Space Sci. 13, 485–506.Google Scholar
  178. Patel, V. L. and Cahill, L. J., Jr.: 1964, ‘Evidence of Hydromagnetic Waves in the Earth's Magnetosphere and of Their Propagation to the Earth's Surface’, Phys. Rev. Letters 12, 213–215.Google Scholar
  179. Patel, V. L. and Hastings, R. N.: 1968, ‘Dependence of the Micropulsation Periods on the Size of the Magnetosphere’, Department of Physics, Denver Research Institute, University of Denver, Du-889-6808, pp. 1–10.Google Scholar
  180. Polk, C.: 1969, ‘ELF Noise of Extra-terrestrial Origin’, Paper Presented to Japan-US Science Cooperation (JUSCO) Symposium Held in Kyoto, Japan, on March 19.Google Scholar
  181. Pope, J. H.: 1964, ‘An Explanation for the Apparent Polarization of some Geomagnetic Micropulsations (Pearls)’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 399–405.Google Scholar
  182. Prince, C. E. and Bostick, F. X.: 1964, ‘Ionospheric Transmission of Transversely Propagated Plane Waves at Micropulsation Frequencies and Theoretical Power Spectrums’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3213–3234.Google Scholar
  183. Provisional Atlas of Rapid Variations: 1961, Ann. Intern. Geophys. Yr. 2B, 668–709.Google Scholar
  184. Radoski, H. R. and Carovillano, R. L.: 1966, ‘Axisymmetric Plasmasphere Resonances: Toroidal Mode’, Phys. Fluid 9, 285–291.Google Scholar
  185. Radoski, H. R. and McClay, J. F.: 1967, ‘The Hydromagnetic Toroidal Resonance’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4899–4903.Google Scholar
  186. Rishbeth, H. and Gariott, O. K.: 1964, ‘Relationship between Simultaneous Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Oscillations’, Radio Sci., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std./USNC-URSI 68D, 339–343.Google Scholar
  187. Rolf, B.: 1931, ‘Giant Micropulsations at Abisko’, Terrest. Mag. 36, 9–14.Google Scholar
  188. Romañá, A. S. I. and Cardús, J. O., S. I.: 1962, ‘Geomagnetic Rapid Variations during IGY and IGC’, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 17, Suppl. A-II, 47–55.Google Scholar
  189. Rostoker, G.: 1967, ‘The Polarization Characteristics of Pi 2 Micropulsations and Their Relations to the Determination of Possible Source Mechanisms for the Production of Nighttime Impulsive Micropulsation Activity’, Can. J. Phys. 45, 1319–1335.Google Scholar
  190. Rostoker, G.: 1968a, ‘Microstructure of Geomagnetic Bays’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 4217–4229.Google Scholar
  191. Rostoker, G.: 1968b, ‘Relationship between the Onset of a Geomagnetic Bay and the Configuration of the Interplanetary Magnetic Field’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 4382–4387.Google Scholar
  192. Saito, T.: 1960, ‘Period Analysis of Geomagnetic Pulsations by a Sona-graph Method’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 12, 105–113.Google Scholar
  193. Saito, T.: 1961, ‘Oscillation of Geomagnetic Field with the Progress of pt-type Pulsation’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 13, 53–61.Google Scholar
  194. Saito, T.: 1962, ‘Statistical Studies on Three Types of Geomagnetic Continuous Pulsations. Part I, Type I pc (5–40 sec)’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 14, 81–106.Google Scholar
  195. Saito, T.: 1964a, ‘Mechanisms of Geomagnetic Continuous Pulsations and Physical States of the Exosphere’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 16, 115–151.Google Scholar
  196. Saito, T.: 1964b, ‘Annual and Semi-annual Variations in the Exosphere Plasma Densities Deduced from pc 4 and pc 5’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18, 197–212.Google Scholar
  197. Saito, T.: 1964c, ‘A New Index of Geomagnetic Pulsation and its Relation to Solar M-regions, Part I’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan, 18, 260–274.Google Scholar
  198. Saito, T.: 1965a, ‘A New Index of Geomagnetic Pulsation and its Relation to Solar M-regions. Part II, Analysis of the Data from 1959 to 1964’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 17, 23–44.Google Scholar
  199. Saito, T.: 1965b, ‘A New Index of Geomagnetic Pulsation and its Relation to Solar M-regions. Part III, Annual Variation and Latitudinal Dependence of M-regions’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 19, 30–46.Google Scholar
  200. Saito, T.: 1966, ‘A Review of the Research on Geomagnetic Pulsations in Japan’, ESSA Technical Report, IER15-ITSA15, pp. 1–61.Google Scholar
  201. Saito, T.: 1967, ‘Some Characteristics of the Dynamic Spectrum of Long-period Geomagnetic Pulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 3895–3904.Google Scholar
  202. Saito, T. and Matsushita, S.: 1967a, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations Associated with Sudden Commencements and Sudden Impulses’, Planetary Space Sci. 15, 573–587.Google Scholar
  203. Saito, T. and Matsushita, S.: 1967b, ‘Variations in the Period of Geomagnetic Pulsation Pc4 during One Recent Solar Cycle’, Trans. Amer. Geophys. Union 48, 70.Google Scholar
  204. Saito, T. and Matsushita, S.: 1968, ‘Solar Cycle Effects on Geomagnetic Pi 2 Pulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 267–286.Google Scholar
  205. Sakurai, T.: 1966, ‘The Relation between the Geomagnetic Storms and the Interplanetary Sector Structure’, Sci. Rep. Tohoku Univ., Ser. 5, Geophys. 18, 51–64.Google Scholar
  206. Sakurai, T.: 1969, Private communication.Google Scholar
  207. Sano, Y.: 1963, ‘Morphological Studies on Sudden Commencements of Magnetic Storms Using Rapid-run Magnetograms (including Studies on Sudden Impulses), (II)’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 11, 1–52.Google Scholar
  208. Sato, T.: 1962, ‘Structures of Sudden Commencements of Geomagnetic Storms and Giant Pulsations in High Latitudes’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 16, 295–333.Google Scholar
  209. Sato, T.: 1964, ‘Long-period Geomagnetic Oscillations in Southern High Latitudes’, Antarctic Res., Ser. 4, Geomag. Aeronom., 173–188.Google Scholar
  210. Schlich, R.: 1963, ‘Micropulsations de périodes comprises entre 0.5 et 6 s observées dans les régions de hautes et moyennes latitudes’, Ann. Geophys. 19, 347–355.Google Scholar
  211. Shimazaki, T.: 1963, ‘On the World-wide Components of Variation in the F Layer Ionization’, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 25, 331–337.Google Scholar
  212. Siebert, M.: 1964, ‘Erdmagnetische Pulsationen, I’, Umschau, 110–113.Google Scholar
  213. Siscoe, G. L., Davis, L., Jr., Smith, E. J., Coleman, P. J., Jr., and Jones, D. E.: 1967, ‘Magnetic Fluctuations in the Magnetosheath: Mariner 4’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 1–17.Google Scholar
  214. Smith, E. J., Holzer, R. E., McLeod, M. G., and Russell, C. T.: 1967, ‘Magnetic Noise in the Magnetosheath in the Frequency’, J. Geophys. Res. 72, 4803–4813.Google Scholar
  215. Smith, H. W.: 1964, ‘Some Observations and Characteristics of Type pc1 Geomagnetic Micropulsations’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1875–1882.Google Scholar
  216. Stacey, F. D.: 1963, ‘Seismo-magnetic Effect and the Possibility of Forecasting Earthquakes’, Nature 194, 1083–1085.Google Scholar
  217. Stewart, B.: 1861, ‘On the Great Magnetic Disturbance which Extended from August 28 to September 7, 1859, as Recorded by Photography at the Kew Observatory’, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, 425.Google Scholar
  218. Stuart, W. F. and Usher, M. J.: 1966, ‘An Investigation of Micropulsations at Middle Latitudes’, Geophys. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 12, 71–86.Google Scholar
  219. Sucksdorff, E.: 1936, ‘Occurrence of Rapid Micropulsations at Sodankyla during 1932 to 1935’, Terrest. Mag. 41, 337–344.Google Scholar
  220. Sucksdorff, E.: 1939, ‘Giant Pulsations Recorded at Sodankyla during 1914–1938’, Terrest. Mag. 44, 157–170.Google Scholar
  221. Sugiura, M. and Wilson, C.: 1964, ‘Oscillation of the Geomagnetic Field Lines and Associated Magnetic Perturbations at Conjugate Points’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 1211–1216.Google Scholar
  222. Tamao, T.: 1961, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations and the Earth's Exosphere’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 15, 293–313.Google Scholar
  223. Tepley, L. R.: 1961, ‘Observations of Hydromagnetic Emissions’, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 1651–1658.Google Scholar
  224. Tepley, L. R.: 1964, ‘Regular Oscillations near 1 cps Observed at Middle and Low Latitudes’, Radio Sci. 1–67.Google Scholar
  225. Tepley, L. R.: 1965, ‘Regular Oscillations near 1 c/s Observed at Middle and Low Latitudes’, Radio Sci., J. Res. Natl. Bur. Std. 69D, 1089–1105.Google Scholar
  226. Tepley, L. R.: 1966, ‘Recent Investigations of Hydromagnetic Emissions, Part 1, Experimental Observation’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 18, 227–256.Google Scholar
  227. Tepley, L. R. and Amundsen, K. D.: 1964, ‘Notes on Sub ELF Emissions Observed during Magnetic Storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 3749–3754.Google Scholar
  228. Tepley, L. R. and Amundsen, K. D.: 1965, ‘Observation of Continuous Sub-ELF Emissions in the Frequency Range 0.2 to 1.0 Cycles per Second’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 234–239.Google Scholar
  229. Tepley, L. R. and Landshoff, R. K.: 1966, ‘Waveguide Theory for Ionospheric Propagation of Hydromagnetic Emissions,’ J. Geophys. Res. 71, 1499–1504.Google Scholar
  230. Tepley, L. R. Heacock, R. R., and Fraser, B. J.: 1965, Hydromagnetic Emissions (pc1) Observed Simultaneously in the Auroral Zone and at Low Latitudes’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 2720–2725.Google Scholar
  231. Terada, T.: 1917, ‘On Rapid Periodic Variations of Terrestrial Magnetism’, in Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, May 25th, XXVII, Art. 9, pp. 113–120.Google Scholar
  232. Troitskaya, V. A.: 1959, ‘Continuous Pulsations (pc) and Pulsation Trains (pt) in the Arctic and in the Antarctic’, Paper Presented to the Utrecht Symposium, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  233. Troitskaya, V. A.: 1961a, ‘Continuous Pulsations and Pulsation Trains in the Arctic and in the Antarctic’, in Short-Period Pulsations of the Earth's Electromagnetic Field, No. 3, Publishing House Acad. Sci. USSR, pp. 41–61.Google Scholar
  234. Troitskaya, V. A.: 1961b, ‘Pulsation of the Earth's Electromagnetic Field with Periods of 1 to 15 Seconds and Their Connection with Phenomena in the High Atmosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 5–18.Google Scholar
  235. Troitskaya, V. A.: 1964, ‘Rapid Variations of the Electromagnetic Field of the Earth’, in Research in Geophysics, Vol. 1, Sun, Upper Atmosphere, and Space (ed. by H. Odishaw), The M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 485–527.Google Scholar
  236. Troitskaya, V. A.: 1967, ‘Micropulsations and the State of the Magnetosphere’, in Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ed. by J. W. King and W. S. Newman), Academic Press., pp. 213–274.Google Scholar
  237. Troitskaya, V. A. and Gul'elmi, A. V.: 1967, ‘Geomagnetic Micropulsations and Diagnostics of the Magnetosphere’, Space Sci. Rev. 7, 689–768.Google Scholar
  238. Troitskaya, V. A. and Melnikova, M. V.: 1959, ‘On Characteristic Intervals of Pulsations Diminishing by Periods in the Electromagnetic Field of the Earth and Their Connection with Phenomena in the High Atmosphere’, Dokl. Akad. Nauk. CCCP 128, 917–920.Google Scholar
  239. Troitskaya, V. A., Bol'shakova, O. V., and Matveyeva, E. T.: 1966, ‘Rapid Variations of the Electromagnetic Field as an Indication of the State of the Radiation Belts and the Geomagnetosphere’, Geomag. Aeronom. 6, 393–398.Google Scholar
  240. Vasyliunas, V. M.: 1968a, ‘A Survey of Low Energy Electrons in the Evening Sector of the Magnetosphere with Ogo 1 and Ogo 3’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 2839–2884.Google Scholar
  241. Vasyliunas, V. M.: 1968b, ‘Low Energy Electrons on the Day Side of the Magnetosphere’, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 7519–7523.Google Scholar
  242. Veldkamp, J.: 1960, ‘A Giant Geomagnetic Pulsation’, J. Atmospheric Terrest. Phys. 17, 320–324.Google Scholar
  243. Victor, L. J.: 1965, ‘Correlated Auroral and Geomagnetic Micropulsations in the Period Range 5 to 40 Seconds’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 3123–3130.Google Scholar
  244. Voelker, H.: 1965, ‘Göttinger Untersuchungen über erdmagnetische Pulsationen und ihre Beziehungen zur Magnetosphere’, Sonderdruck Nr. 41 aus Kleinheubacher Berichte, Nr. 10, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  245. Watanabe, T.: 1959, ‘Hydromagnetic Oscillations of the Outer Ionosphere and Geomagnetic Pulsation’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 10, 195–202.Google Scholar
  246. Watanabe, T.: 1965, ‘Determination of the Electron Distribution in the Magnetosphere Using Hydromagnetic Whistlers’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 5839–5848.Google Scholar
  247. Watanabe, T.: 1966, ‘Quasi-Linear Theory of Transverse Plasma Instabilities with Applications to Hydromagnetic Emissions from the Magnetosphere’, Can. J. Phys. 44, 815–835.Google Scholar
  248. Weaver, J. T.: 1965, ‘Magnetic Variations Associated with Ocean Wave and Swell’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 1921–1929.Google Scholar
  249. Wentworth, R. C.: 1964, ‘Enhancement of Hydromagnetic Emissions after Geomagnetic Storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 69, 2291–2298.Google Scholar
  250. Wentworth, R. C.: 1966, Recent Investigations of Hydromagnetic Emissions, Part II, Theoretical Interpretation', J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 18, 257–273.Google Scholar
  251. Wentworth, R. C. and Tepley, L. R.: 1962, ‘Hydromagnetic Emissions, X-Ray Bursts and Electron Bunches’, J. Geophys. Res. 67, 3335–3343.Google Scholar
  252. Wentworth, R. C., Tepley, L. R., Amundsen, K. D., and Heacock, R. R.: 1966, ‘Intra- and Interhemisphere Differences in Occurrence Times of Hydromagnetic Emissions’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 1492–1498.Google Scholar
  253. Westphal, K. O. and Jacobs, J. A.: 1962, ‘Oscillations of the Earth's Outer Atmosphere and Micropulsations’, J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 6, 360–376.Google Scholar
  254. Whitham, K.: 1960, ‘Measurement of the Geomagnetic Elements’, in Methods and Techniques in Geophysics (ed. by S. K. Runcorn), Wiley (Interscience), New York, pp. 107–167.Google Scholar
  255. Wilcox, J. M. and Ness, N. F.: 1965, ‘Quasi-Stationary Corotating Structure in the Interplanetary Medium’, J. Geophys. Res. 70, 5793–5803.Google Scholar
  256. Wilson, C. R.: 1966, ‘Conjugate Three-Dimensional Polarization of High-Latitude Micropulsations from a Hydromagnetic Wave-Ionosphere Current Model’, J. Geophys. Res. 71, 3233–3249.Google Scholar
  257. Wilson, C. R. and Sugiura, M.: 1961, ‘Hydromagnetic Interpretation of Sudden Commencements of Magnetic Storms’, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 4097–4112.Google Scholar
  258. Wilson, C. R. and Sugiura, M.: 1963a, ‘Hydromagnetic Waves Generated by the July 9, 1962, Nuclear Weapons Test as Observed at College, Alaska’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3149–3153.Google Scholar
  259. Wilson, C. R. and Sugiura, M.: 1963b, ‘Discussion of our Earlier Paper “Hydromagnetic Interpretation of Sudden Commencements of Magnetic Storms”’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3314–3319.Google Scholar
  260. Yamashita, M.: 1967, ‘Observation of Whistler-Like ELF Radio Waves between 3 and 60 c/s’, Proc. Res. Inst. Atmospherics, Nagoya Univ. 14, 39–43.Google Scholar
  261. Yanagihara, K.: 1957, ‘Frequency of Pulsation and Geomagnetic Activity’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 8, 61–67.Google Scholar
  262. Yanagihara, K.: 1959, ‘Some Characters of Geomagnetic Pulsation pt and Accompanied Oscillation spt’, J. Geomagnet. Geoelec. 10, Special Number, 172–176.Google Scholar
  263. Yanagihara, K.: 1960, ‘Geomagnetic Pulsations in Middle Latitudes, Morphology and its Interpretation’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 9, 15–74.Google Scholar
  264. Yanagihara, K.: 1963, ‘Geomagnetic Micropulsations with Periods from 0.3 to 10 Seconds in the Auroral Zones with Special Reference to Conjugate-Point Studies’, J. Geophys. Res. 68, 3383–3397.Google Scholar
  265. Yanagihara, K.: 1964, ‘Regular Oscillations about 1 cps and Schumann Resonance’, Rep. Ionos. Space Res. Japan 18, 237–239.Google Scholar
  266. Yanagihara, K. and Shimizu, N.: 1966, ‘Equatorial Enhancement of Micropulsation pi 2’, Mem. Kakioka Mag. Obs. 12, 57–63.Google Scholar
  267. Yanagihara, K. and Shimizu, N.: 1969, ‘Non-Schumann Variation in the Schumann Resonance Range of ELF’, Paper Presented to Japan US Scientific Cooperation (JUSCO) Symposium Held in Kyoto, Japan, on March 19.Google Scholar
  268. Yonezawa, T.: 1959, ‘On the Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Annual Variations and the Semi-Annual Variation in the Noon and Midnight Electron Densities of the F2 Layer in Middle Latitude, II’, J. Radio Res. Lab. Tokyo 6, 651–668.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© D. Reidel Publishing Company 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takao Saito
    • 1
  1. 1.Geophysical Institute, Tohoku UniversitySendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations