Advertisement

Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 63, Issue 2, pp 127–134 | Cite as

Perception of rotating spiral patterns by pigeons

  • C. Martinoya
  • J. D. Delius
Article

Abstract

The ability of pigeons to discriminate indepth moving stimuli was studied with the rotating spiral illusion. Trained with tightly wound spirals, the birds were able to distinguish apparently approaching from apparently retreating spirals. Discrimination also persisted with loosely wound spirals, even though these did not induce an equivalent illusion in humans. Analysis of the optic flow created by the spirals indicates that the relevant cues were local divergent/convergent motion patterns. Global flow patterns, similar to those arising with approaching/retreating scenes, were only generated by tightly wound spirals. An unidimensional parameter τ could be derived that typified each and all the stimuli used. It is equivalent to the τ that has been used to characterize the optic flow of really approaching objects, indicating the time to collision. With a stationary rotating logarithmic spiral, τ is a joint function of winding tightness and rotation velocity. The τs associated with the rotation speeds yielding threshold discrimination gauged the effectiveness of spirals with different winding inclinations. Threshold τs were high with tight spirals and decreased with loose spirals. This indicates that both local and global kinetic cues must contribute to the detection of in-depth movement by pigeons. Even though the cue efficiency of local flow patterns alone is less than that of global flow patterns the former may be of value when they are dealing with scene elements looming at different rates or with looming objects that are partially occluded.

Keywords

Rotation Speed Flow Pattern Motion Pattern Optic Flow Rotation Velocity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beverly KE, Regan D (1979) Visual perception of changing size: the effect of object size. Vision Res 19:1093–1104Google Scholar
  2. Braitenberg V, Tadei-Ferretti C (1966) Landing reaction of Musca domestica. Naturwissenschaften 55:155–156Google Scholar
  3. Carpenter B, Carpenter JT (1958) The perception of movement by young chimpanzees and human children. J Comp Physiol Psychol 51:782–784Google Scholar
  4. Cynader M, Regan D (1978) Neurons in cat's parastriate cortex sensitive to the direction of motion in three-dimensional space. J Physiol (London) 274:549–569Google Scholar
  5. Delius JD (1985) The peck of the pigeon: free for all. In: Lowe CF, Richelle M, Blackman DE, Bradshaw CM (eds) Behaviour analysis and contemporary psychology, Erlbaum, New York, pp 53–81Google Scholar
  6. Dodwell PC (1984) The Lie transformation groups model of visual perception. Percept Psychophys 34:1–16Google Scholar
  7. Eckert H (1983) On the landing response of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Biol Cybern 42:119–130Google Scholar
  8. Eckert H, Hamdorf K (1980) Excitatory and inhibitory responses components in the landing response of Musca domestica. J Comp Physiol 138:273–276Google Scholar
  9. Emmerton J (1983) Vision. In: Abs M (ed) Physiology and behaviour of the pigeon. Academic Press, London, pp 245–266Google Scholar
  10. Frost BJ (1986) Motion characteristics of single units in the pigeon optic tectum. Vision Res 16:1229–1234Google Scholar
  11. Gibson JJ (1979) The ecological approach to visual perception. Houghton Mifflin, BostonGoogle Scholar
  12. Graham CH (1968) Depth and movement. Am Psychol 23:18–25Google Scholar
  13. Hildreth EC (1984) Computations underlying the measurement of visual motion. Artif Intell 23:309–354Google Scholar
  14. Hodos W, Besserte BB, Macko KA, Weiss SRB (1985) Normative data for pigeon vision. Vision Res 25:1525–1527Google Scholar
  15. Koenderink JJ (1986) Optic flow. Vision Res 26:161–180Google Scholar
  16. Lee DN (1976) A theory of visual control of braking based on information about time-to-collision. Perception 5:437–459Google Scholar
  17. Lee DN (1980) Visuo-motor coordination in space-time. In: Stelmach GE, Requin J (eds) Tutorials in motor behavior. North Holland, Amsterdam, pp 281–295Google Scholar
  18. Martinoya C (1977) Kinetic induction produced by light stimulation in humans. Vision Res 17:598–608Google Scholar
  19. Martinoya C, Rivaud S, Bloch S (1983) Comparing frontal and lateral viewing in the pigeon. II. Velocity thresholds for movement discrimination. Behav Brain Res 8:375–385Google Scholar
  20. Nakayama T (1985) Biological image motion processing; a review. Vision Res 25:625–660Google Scholar
  21. Pearlman AL, Hughes CP (1976) Functional role of efferents to the avian retina. I. Analysis of retinal ganglion cell receptive fields. J Comp Neurol 166:111–122Google Scholar
  22. Perrone JA (1986) Anisotropic responses to motion towards and away from the eye. Percept Psychophys 39:1–8Google Scholar
  23. Rauschecker JP, Grünau MW von, Poulin C (1987) Centrifugal organization of direction preferences in the cat's lateral suprasylvian visual cortex and its relation to flow field processing. J Neurosci 7:943–949Google Scholar
  24. Reddish PE, Lee DN (1981) Plummeting gannets: a paradigm of ecological optics. Nature 293:293–294Google Scholar
  25. Regan D, Beverly KE (1978) Looming detectors in the human visual pathway. Vision Res 8:415–421Google Scholar
  26. Regan D, Cynader M (1979) Neurons in area 18 of cat visual cortex selectively sensitive to changing size: nonlinear interaction between responses to two edges. Vision Res 19:699–711Google Scholar
  27. Schiff W (1965) Perception of impending collision. Psychol Monogr 79:1–26Google Scholar
  28. Schiff W, Cavines JA, Gibson JJ (1962) Persistent fear responses in rhesus monkeys to the optical stimulus of “looming”. Science 136:982–983Google Scholar
  29. Swanson MT, Gogel WC (1986) Perceived size and motion in depth from optical expansion. Percept Psychophys 39:309–326Google Scholar
  30. Toyama K, Komatsu Y, Kasai H, Fujii K, Umetani K (1985) Responsiveness of Clare-Bishop neurons to visual cues associated with motion of a visual stimulus in three-dimensional space. Vision Res 25:407–414Google Scholar
  31. Uras S, Girosi F, Verri A, Torre V (1988) A computational approach to motion perception. Biol Cybern 60:79–87Google Scholar
  32. Wagner H (1982) Flow-field variables trigger landing in flies. Nature 297:147–148Google Scholar
  33. Warren WH Jr, Hannon DJ (1988) Direction of self-motion is perceived from optic flow. Nature 336:162–163Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Martinoya
    • 1
  • J. D. Delius
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut de Neurosciences, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/CNRSParisFrance
  2. 2.Allgemeine PsychologieUniversität KonstanzKonstanz 1Germany

Personalised recommendations