Planta

, Volume 193, Issue 3, pp 341–348 | Cite as

Physiological genetics of the dominant gibberellin-nonresponsive maize dwarfs, Dwarf8 and Dwarf9

Article

Abstract

Maize (Zea mays L.) Dwarf8-1 (D8-1) is an andromonoecious dwarf mutant proposed to be involved in gibberellin (GA) reception (Fujioka et al. 1988b; Harberd and Freeling 1989). The mutant D8-1 is dominant and GA-nonresponsive (Phinney 1956). We show by map position and similarity of phenotype that five additional dwarf mutants are D8 alleles. We show by map position and similarity of phenotype that a second andromonoecious dwarf mutant, D9-1, defines a duplicate gene. Maize D9-1 and each dominant D8 allele specify a different plant stature, from very mild to very severe dwarfism. Plants of D9-1 and all dominant D8 alleles, except D8-1591, were GA-nonresponsive when treated with 7500 nmol GA3. The behavior of the mild dwarf D8-1591 was unique in that a small but significant growth response was detected (37% for D8-1591 vs. 130% for the wild type) when treated with 7500 nmol GA3. These results establish that all dwarf genotypes, except D8-1591, in one dose set a maximum limit on plant growth and block the normal response to GA. When treated with the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol, plants of all dwarf genotypes and wild-type siblings were severely dwarfed. Plants of all dwarf genotypes treated with the GA-synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol and GA3 were returned to their normal dwarf phenotype. Dominant dwarfing, delayed flowering, increased tillering, and anther development in the ear are characteristic features of D9-1 and all D8 alleles. The GA-synthesis-deficient dwarfs also have these characteristic features. We discuss the function of the wild-type gene product in the context of the observed results.

Key words

Dwarf mutant (dominant) Gibberellin reception Gibberellin-nonresponsive dwarfs Mutant maize (Dwarf8) Zea (gibberellin-insensitive dwarf) 

Abbreviations

D8

Dwarf8

D9

Dwarf9

GA(n)

gibberellin A(n)

GA3

gibberellic acid

MNL

Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter

NIL

near-isogenic lines

RFLP

restriction fragment length polymorphism

WT

wild type

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appleford, N.E.J., Lenton, J.R. (1991) Gibberellins and leaf expansion in near-isogenic wheat lines containing Rht1 and Rhrt3 dwarfing alleles. Planta 183, 229–236Google Scholar
  2. Beavis, W.D., and Grant, D. (1991) A linkage map based on information from four F2 populations of maize (Zea mays L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 82, 636–644Google Scholar
  3. Burr, B., Burr, F.A., Thompson, K.H., Albertson, M.C., Stuber, C.W. (1988) Gene mapping with recombinant inbreds in maize. Genetics 118, 519–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Coe, E.H. Jr, Neuffer, M.G., Hoisington, D.A. (1988) The genetics of corn. In: Corn and corn improvement, Third ed., pp. 81–258, Sprague, G.F., Dudley, J.W., eds, Am. Soc. Agron., Madison, WisconsinGoogle Scholar
  5. Freeling, M. (1992) A conceptual framework for maize leaf development. Dev. Biol. 153, 44–58Google Scholar
  6. Fujioka, S., Yamane, H., Spray, C.R., Gaskin, P., MacMillan, J., Phinney, B.O., Takahashi, N. (1988a) Qualitative and quantitative analyses of gibberellins in vegetative shoots of normal, dwarf1, dwarf2, dwarf3, and dwarf5 seedlings of Zea mays L.. Plant Physiol. 88, 1367–1372Google Scholar
  7. Fujioka, S., Yamane, H., Spray, C.R., Katsumi, M., Phinney, B.O., Gaskin, P., MacMillan, J., Takahashi, N. (1988b) The dominant non-gibberellin-responding dwarf mutant (D8) of maize accumulates native gibberellins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 9031–9035Google Scholar
  8. Gale, M.D., Marshall, G.A. (1973) Insensitivity to gibberellin in dwarf wheats. Ann. Bot. 37, 729–735Google Scholar
  9. Gardiner, J.M., Coe, E.H., Melia-Hancock, S., Hoisington, D.A., Chao, S. (1993) Development of a core RFLP map in maize using an immortalized F2 population. Genetics 134, 917–930Google Scholar
  10. Harberd, N.P., Freeling, M. (1989) Genetics of dominant gibberellin-insensitive dwarfism in maize. Genetics 121, 827–838Google Scholar
  11. Helentjaris, T. (1993) Implications for conserved genomic structure among plant species. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90, 8308–8309Google Scholar
  12. Helentjaris, T., Slocum, M., Wright, S., Schaefer, A., Nienhuis, J. (1986) Construction of genetic linkage maps in maize and tomato using restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Theor. Appl. Genet. 72, 761–769Google Scholar
  13. Helentjaris, T., Weber, D., Wright, S. (1988) Identification of the genomic locations of duplicate nucleotide sequences in maize by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. Genetics 118, 353–363Google Scholar
  14. Jin, Y., Anderson, K.V. (1990) Dominant and recessive alleles of the Drosophila easter gene are point mutations at conserved sites in the serine protease catalytic domain. Cell 60, 873–881Google Scholar
  15. Keller, J.M., Shanklin, J., Vierstra, R.D., Hershey, H.P. (1989) Expression of a functional monocotyledonous phytochrome in transgenic tobacco. EMBO J. 8, 1005–1012Google Scholar
  16. Koornneef, M., Elgersma, A., Hanhart, C.J., van Loenen-Martinet, E.P., van Rijn, L., Zeevaart, J.A.D. (1985) A gibberellin insensitive mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol. Plant. 65, 33–39Google Scholar
  17. Lanahan, M.B., Ho, D.T.H. (1988) Slender barley: A constitutive gibberellin-response mutant. Planta 175, 107–114Google Scholar
  18. Lander, E.S., Green, P., Abrahamson, J., Barlow, A., Daly, M.J., Lincoln, S.E., Newberg, L. (1987) MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics 1, 174–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McComb, A.J., McComb, J.A. (1970) Growth substances and the relation between phenotype and genotype in Pisum sativum. Planta 91, 235–245Google Scholar
  20. Nelson, O.E., Burr, B. (1973) Biochemical genetics of higher plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 24, 493–518Google Scholar
  21. Peng, J., Harberd, N.P. (1993) Derivative alleles of the Arabidopsis gibberellin-insensitive (gai) mutation confer a wild-type phenotype. Plant Cell 5, 351–360Google Scholar
  22. Phinney, B.O. (1956) Growth response of single-gene dwarf mutants in maize to gibberellic acid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 42, 185–189Google Scholar
  23. Rademacher, W. (1991) Inhibitors of gibberellin biosynthesis: Applications in agriculture and horticulture. In: Gibberellins, pp. 296–310, Takahashi, N., Phinney, B.O., MacMillan, J., eds. Springer-Verlag, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Reid, J.B. (1986) Gibberellin mutants. In: Plant gene research, a genetic approach to plant biochemistry, pp. 1–34, Blonstein, A.D., King, P.J., eds. Springer-Verlag, WienGoogle Scholar
  25. Schneider, D.S., Hudson, K.L., Lin, T., Anderson, K.V. (1991) Dominant and recessive mutations define functional domains of Toll, a transmembrane protein required for dorsal-ventral polarity in the Drosophila embryo. Gene Dev. 5, 797–807Google Scholar
  26. Scott, I.M. (1990) Plant hormone response mutants. Physiol. Plant. 78, 147–152Google Scholar
  27. Stoddart, J.L. (1984) Growth and gibberellin-A1 metabolism in normal and gibberellin-insensitive (Rht3) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings. Planta 161, 432–438Google Scholar
  28. Stuber, C.W., Lincoln, S.E., Wolff, D.W., Helentjaris, T., Lander, E.S. (1992) Indentification of genetic factors contributing to heterosis in a hybrid from two elite maize inbred lines using molecular markers. Genetics 132, 823–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Talon, M., Koornneef, M., Zeevaart, J.A.D. (1990) Accumulation of C19-gibberellins in the gibberellin-insensitive dwarf mutant gai of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Planta 182, 501–505Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant BiologyUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations