, Volume 194, Issue 1, pp 62–68 | Cite as

Changes in gene expression during strawberry fruit ripening and their regulation by auxin

  • K. Manning


Changes in messenger RNA during the development of the strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch.), a non-climacteric fruit, were analysed by extracting total RNA and separating the in-vitro translated products by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Alterations in numerous messenger RNAs accompanied fruit development between the immature green stage and the overripe stage, with prominent changes detected at or before the onset of ripening. A number of messenger RNAs undetectable in immature green fruit increased as the fruit matured and ripened. Others showed a marked decrease in advance of the ripening phase. A further group of messenger RNAs was prominent in immature and ripe fruit but absent just prior to the turning stage. Removing the achenes from a segment of the fruit accelerated anthocyanin accumulation in the de-achened portion and produced a pattern of translated polypeptides similar to normal ripe fruit. Application of the synthetic auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid to the de-achened receptacle produced a translation pattern similar to that in mature green fruit. These findings indicate that ripening in strawberry is associated with the expression of specific genes.

Key words

Auxin Fragaria Fruit ripening Messenger RNA 



two dimensional gel electrophoresis


1-naphthaleneacetic acid


phenoxyacetic acid


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abeles, F.B., Takeda, F. (1990) Cellulase activity and ethylene in ripening strawberry and apple fruits. Sci. Hort. 42, 269–275Google Scholar
  2. Alonso, J.M., Garcia-Martinez, J.L., Chamarro, J. (1992). Two dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of total, in vivo labelled and in vitro translated polypeptides from orange flavedo during maturation and following ethylene treatment. Physiol. Plant. 85, 147–156Google Scholar
  3. Archbold, D.D., Dennis, F.G. Jr. (1984) Quantification of free ABA and free and conjugated IAA in strawberry achene nd receptacle tissue during fruit development. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109, 330–335Google Scholar
  4. Bradford, M.M. (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal. Biochem. 72, 248–254CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Callahan, A., Morgens, P., Walton E. (1989) Isolation and in vitro translation of RNAs from developing peach fruit. HortScience 24, 356–358Google Scholar
  6. Christoffersen, R.E., Warm, E., Laties, G.G. (1982) Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado. Planta 155, 52–57Google Scholar
  7. Dopico, B., Lowe, A.L., Wilson, I.D., Merodio, C., Grierson, D. (1993) Cloning and characterization of avocado fruit mRNAs and their expression during ripening and low-temperature storage. Plant Mol. Biol. 21, 437–449Google Scholar
  8. Given, N.K., Venis, M.A., Grierson, D. (1988a) Hormonal regulation of ripening in the strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit. Planta 174, 402–406Google Scholar
  9. Given, N.K., Venis, M.A., Grierson, D. (1988b) Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and anthocyanin synthesis in ripening strawberry fruit. J Plant Physiol. 133, 25–30Google Scholar
  10. Given, N.K., Venis, M.A., Grierson, D. (1988c) Purification and properties of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase from strawberry fruit and its synthesis during ripening. J. Plant Physiol. 133, 31–37Google Scholar
  11. Gray, J., Picton, S., Shabbeer, J., Schuch, W., Grierson, D. (1992) Molecular biology of fruit ripening and its manipulation with antisense genes. Plant Mol. Biol 19, 69–87Google Scholar
  12. Grierson, D. (1985) Gene expression in ripening tomato fruit. CRC Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 3, 113–132Google Scholar
  13. Hiscox, J.D., Israelstam, G.F. (1979) A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can. J. Bot. 57, 1332–1334Google Scholar
  14. Hoad, G.V., Anderson, H.M., Guttridge, C.G., Sparks, T.R. (1971) Ethylene and the ripening of strawberry fruits. In: Bristol Univ. Long Ashton Res. Stat. Annu. Rept., pp. 33–34Google Scholar
  15. Hubbard, N.L., Pharr, D.M., Huber, S.C. (1991) Sucrose phosphate synthase and other sucrose metabolizing enzymes in fruits of various species. Physiol. Plant. 82, 191–196Google Scholar
  16. Jones, R.B., Wardley, T.M., Dalling, M.J. (1989) Molecular changes involved in the ripening of tomato fruit. J. Plant Physiol. 134, 284–289Google Scholar
  17. Knee, M., Sargent, J.A., Osborne, D.J. (1977) Cell wall metabolism in developing strawberry fruits. J. Exp. Bot. 28, 377–396Google Scholar
  18. Lay-Yee, M., Della Penna, D., Ross, G. S. (1990) Changes in mRNA and protein during ripening in apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Golden Delicious). Plant Physiol. 94, 850–853Google Scholar
  19. Lopez-Gomez, R., Gomez-Lim, M.A. (1992) Changes in mRNA and protein synthesis during ripening in mango fruit. J. Plant Physiol. 141, 82–87Google Scholar
  20. Manning, K. (1991) Isolation of nucleic acids from plants by differential solvent precipitation. Anal. Biochem. 195, 45–50Google Scholar
  21. Mehta, R.A., Parsons, B.L., Mehta, A.M., Nakhari, H.L., Mattoo, A.K. (1991) Differential protein metabolism and gene expression in tomato fruit during wounding stress. Plant Cell Physiol. 32, 1057–1065Google Scholar
  22. Nitsch, J.P. (1950) Growth and morphogenesis of the strawberry as related to auxin. Am. J. Bot. 37, 211–215Google Scholar
  23. O'Farrell, P.H. (1975) High resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins. J. Biol. Chem. 250, 4007–4021Google Scholar
  24. Rattanapanone, N., Grierson, D., Stein, M. (1977) Ribonucleic metabolism during the development and ripening of tomato fruits. Photochemistry 16, 629–633Google Scholar
  25. Reddy, A.S.N., Jena, P.K., Mukherjee, S.K., Poovaiah, B.W. (1990) Molecular cloning of cDNAs for auxin-induced mRNAs and developmental expression of the auxin-inducible genes. Plant Mol. Biol. 14, 643–653Google Scholar
  26. Reddy, A.S.N., Poovaiah, B.W. (1990) Molecular cloning and sequencing of a cDNA for an auxin-repressed mRNA: correlation between fruit growth and repression of the auxin-regulated gene. Plant Mol. Biol. 14, 127–136Google Scholar
  27. Slater, A., Maunders, M.J., Edwards, K., Schuch, W., Grierson, D. (1985) Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for tomato polygalacturonase and other ripening-related proteins. Plant Mol. Biol. 5, 137–147Google Scholar
  28. Wilson, I.D., Tucker, G.A., Knee, M., Grierson, D. (1990) Changes in mRNA during low temperature storage and ripening of pears. Phytochemistry 29, 2407–2409Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Manning
    • 1
  1. 1.Horticulture Research InternationalrLittlehamptonUK

Personalised recommendations