Biological Cybernetics

, Volume 71, Issue 6, pp 469–480 | Cite as

STORE working memory networks for storage and recall of arbitrary temporal sequences

  • Gary Bradski
  • Gail A. Carpenter
  • Stephen Grossberg


Neural network models of working memory, called “sustained temporal order recurrent” (STORE) models, are described. They encode the invariant temporal order of sequential events in short-term memory (STM) in a way that mimics cognitive data about working memory, including primacy, recency, and bowed order and error gradients. As new items are presented, the pattern of previously stored items remains invariant in the sense that relative activations remain constant through time. This invariant temporal order code enables all possible groupings of sequential events to be stably learned and remembered in real time, even as new events perturb the system. Such competence is needed to design self-organizing temporal recognition and planning systems in which any subsequence of events may need to be categorized in order to control and predict future behavior or external events. STORE models show how arbitrary event sequences may be invariantly stored, including repeated events. A preprocessor interacts with the working memory to represent event repeats in spatially separate locations. It is shown why at least two processing levels are needed to invariantly store events presented with variable durations and interstimulus intervals. It is also shown how network parameters control the type and shape of primacy, recency, or bowed temporal order gradients that will be stored.


Neural Network Model Temporal Order Sequential Event Temporal Sequence Interstimulus Interval 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gary Bradski
    • 1
  • Gail A. Carpenter
    • 1
  • Stephen Grossberg
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Adaptive Systems and Department of Cognitive and Neural SystemsBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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